The Immigrant Workforce in Germany: Formal and Informal Barriers to Addressing Skills Deficits. Migration Policy Institute. Stefan Speckesser. November 2013.
While immigrant workers in Germany face relatively few formal barriers to access training, the country’s highly institutionalized and regulated workforce development system creates a number of informal barriers, in part as a result of the central role of employers and occupational associations in the system. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
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