Fulfilling the Promise of Career Pathways: Strategies that Support Career Advancement

Fulfilling the Promise of Career Pathways: Strategies that Support Career Advancement. Urban Institute. Lauren Eyster, Semhar Gebrekristos. October 11, 2018

 The career pathways model is designed to help people get the training they need to find good jobs and employers find skilled workers. However, little is understood about how career pathways programs can support career advancement that lead to jobs that lead to a stable career and family-sustaining wages. This brief presents three types of career advancement strategies, with examples from five programs, that help people move beyond the first step on a career pathway and successfully advance in their careers. It concludes with takeaways for the three strategies to help practitioners, policymakers, and program funders better support career advancement. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 11 pages].

Must the Energy Transition Be Slow?Not Necessarily

Must the Energy Transition Be Slow? Not Necessarily. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Nikos Tsafos. September 17, 2018.

 The world needs to shift its energy system to meet its climate targets. The growth in energy demand must slow, and the carbon emitted from that energy must decline. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

 [PDF format, 9 pages].

The Geography of Prosperity

The Geography of Prosperity. Brookings Institution. Ryan Nunn, Jana Parsons, and Jay Shambaugh. September 28, 2018

 Over the last several decades, the fortunes of regions and communities across the United States have stopped converging. Evolving patterns of trade and technology, among other factors, have created concentrated prosperity while leaving many places behind. In order to formulate an effective policy response at the local, state, and federal levels, it is necessary to understand how economic activity has shifted, as well as the factors that are associated with success or failure for particular places. To present a full picture of which places are thriving, how that picture has changed over time, and what factors are associated with success or failure, we created the Vitality Index, which measures the economic and social well-being of a place. We find that places in 1980 with higher levels of human capital, more diverse economies, lower exposure to manufacturing, higher population density, and more innovative activity tended to have higher vitality scores in 2016. Further, both the differences in fiscal capacity among states and declining migration rates can reinforce differences in economic outcomes across places. The analysis in this chapter underscores the complicated overlap of gaps across places: differences across regions, states, and counties are all substantial, as are differences within counties. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

 [PDF format, 28 pages].

Transforming Agriculture for Climate Resilience: A Framework for Systemic Change

Transforming Agriculture for Climate Resilience: A Framework for Systemic Change. World Resources Institute. Rebecca Carter, Tyler Ferdinand and Christina Chan.  October 2018

 Transformative approaches to adaptation in agriculture will be needed to maintain and enhance global food security, avoid maladaptation and reduce growing risks of crisis and conflict. Today, the agriculture sector practices adaptation with relatively limited incremental adjustments to existing systems to better manage current climate variability and cope with near-term climate risks. Increasingly, severe climate impacts are beginning to test the limits of what we can adapt to through such relatively minor adjustments. These impacts will increasingly require more dramatic shifts at greater scale, speed, and intensity to manage risk, strengthen food security and protect lives and livelihoods—especially among the poorest and most vulnerable, who often depend on climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture, fishing and tourism.

This working paper explores the concept of transformative adaptation for agriculture and why it is needed. It looks at how transformative outcomes could be achieved by aligning adaptation projects along pathways and adjusting planning processes to incorporate longer-term, more systemic approaches. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

 [PDF format, 24 pages].

Building beyond Policing: A Case Study of Eden Night Live in Alameda County, California

Building beyond Policing: A Case Study of Eden Night Live in Alameda County, California. Urban Institute. Cameron Okeke. September 25, 2018

 Key takeaway: How community parties have helped California sheriffs rethink public safety

This report describes how the Alameda County Sheriff’s Office used Eden Night Live, a community festival and pop-up marketplace, to creatively reimagine and rebuild community-police relations in Ashland/Cherryland. Through interviews with officers, community members, and staff, this case study examines how artistic performance, community participation, and community-based economic development can build local commerce, foster community cohesion, and change perceptions of public safety. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

 [PDF format, 42 pages].

What is Machine Learning?

What is Machine Learning? Brookings Institution. Chris Meserole. October 4, 2018

 Machine learning is now so popular that it has effectively become synonymous with artificial intelligence itself. As a result, it’s not possible to tease out the implications of AI without understanding how machine learning works. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

 [HTML format, various paging].

The Costs of Climate Change

The Costs of Climate Change. YaleGlobal. Kenneth Gillingham. October 18, 2018

 Economic models allow societies to analyze complex problems and make sensible decisions. Yale University Professor William Nordhaus has been named winner of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Economics for his research on models that integrate climate change into long-term economic analysis. Paul Romer of New York University was also named for his work on endogenous growth theory. Kenneth Gillingham of Yale University reflects on Nordhaus’ profound contributions to the field of economics – and to society more broadly – that led to this recognition, explaining that “Nordhaus laid the groundwork for what is now an entire field on the economics of climate change.” The research analyzes how climate change can be mitigated at the lowest-cost possible, what the optimal climate policy is, and how society’s choices about climate mitigation can influence long-run well-being. Gillingham concludes that Nordhaus’ work is global in scope and visionary, dedicated to preparing societies for what may be the most pressing challenge of our time. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

 [HTML format, various paging].

The Future of Financial Stability and Cyber Risk

The Future of Financial Stability and Cyber Risk. Brookings Institution. Jason Healey et al. October 10, 2018

 The financial sector has long been at the forefront of cybersecurity and industry-wide information sharing and cooperation. Even so, cyber attacks on financial institutions and financial market infrastructures have become more frequent and sophisticated, prompting ever-larger security investments and increased focus on mitigating and managing cyber risk. Parallel to these efforts, the financial sector, regulators, and national governments have been working to improve overall resiliency and stability in the hopes of preventing a repeat of panics such as the financial crisis a decade ago.

This paper takes the critical next step: examining the intersection of these two efforts. How might cyber risks and financial risks interact to cause systemic crises? Is there anything fundamentally new or different about cyber risks? How should economists, regulators, policymakers, and central bankers focused on financial stability incorporate cyber risks into their models and thinking? [Note: contains copyrighted material].

 [PDF format, 18 pages].

Increasing Access to Quality Child Care for Four Priority Populations

Increasing Access to Quality Child Care for Four Priority Populations. Urban Institute. Julia R Henly, Gina Adams. October 9, 2018

 In recent decades, policymakers have increasingly focused on the importance of high-quality child care and early education services in supporting the development of low-income children. Though high-quality early care and education (ECE) can exist in any setting—including child care centers and home-based licensed and license-exempt settings—the emphasis on high-quality ECE services often translates into a singular focus on investing public funds in formal settings, especially center-based programs.

This report explores the implications of this trend in the context of the 2014 reauthorization of the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG). It focuses on four priority populations: families with parents working nontraditional schedules, families with infants and toddlers, families living in rural areas, and families with children with disabilities and special needs. The center-based market is ill prepared to meet the needs of these four populations, yet together they make up a majority of low-income children with working parents and are a priority for the CCDBG.

The report provides data on the number of low-income children in each state who fall into these categories (except families with children who have special needs) and the proportion of those receiving subsidies who are cared for in child care centers. It also discusses the barriers to care for these populations, lays out state policy strategies to increase access to high-quality care across the full range of settings for these children, and highlights key gaps in our knowledge as to how to best support access to quality for these families. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

 [PDF format, 82 pages].

Labor Market Patterns since 2007

Labor Market Patterns since 2007. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.  Sarah A. Donovan, Marc Labonte. October 3, 2018

The period since 2007 has been a time of significant change for labor markets. The Great Recession of 2007-2009, the longest and deepest recession since the Great Depression, caused the unemployment rate to briefly reach 10%, and labor markets have subsequently experienced a long and gradual recovery. Most labor force metrics, including the unemployment rate and various other measures of labor force underutilization, have returned to levels that have historically been consistent with full employment.

 [PDF format, 26 pages].