Breaking Down Proposals for Privacy Legislation: How Do They Regulate? Brookings Institution. Cameron F. Kerry. March 8, 2019
The “discussion drafts” of baseline privacy bills released
late last year offer a glimpse of the taxonomy of issues up for debate:
- What is the regulatory model?
- What kinds of data are covered?
- What sectors and what entities?
- What rights do individuals have?
- What obligations do businesses have in
- How are these rights enforced—by what agency and
with what powers?
- How is pre-emption handled?
The question of the regulatory model is the keystone that
overarches these and holds the rest together. Several of the draft bills present
concrete signs of an emerging shift in the underlying model for privacy
regulation in the current discussion, from one based on consumer choice to
another focused on business behavior in handling data. This paper focuses on
this key element of the taxonomy—how proposals reflect this shifting paradigm
and how the change affects other aspects of privacy protection. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[HTML format, various paging].
Life as a Private: Stories of Service from the Junior Ranks of Today’s Army. RAND Corporation. Rebecca Zimmerman et al. March 6, 2019
Army enlisted service is an enduring American tradition. Men
and women, often recent high school graduates, leave home to serve their
country and experience the challenges of Basic Combat Training and the
camaraderie of life on a military base. But there is much more to Army service than
the outlines with which most Americans are familiar. A separate RAND Arroyo
Center report details the service experiences of 81 junior enlisted soldiers
across many similar topics. The objective of this report is to provide deeper
insight into the junior enlisted experience in a way that is accessible to
policymakers and senior Army leaders, junior leaders, recruiters, and
individuals considering an Army career.
This volume goes beyond the archetypes and bumper stickers
to tell the stories of six soldiers in their own words. In these chapters,
readers learn about their decisions to join the Army, the joys and frustrations
of their jobs, and their considerations for the future. The narratives identify
some leadership behaviors that support soldier success and others that make
soldiers’ lives more difficult. The interviews have been edited for clarity and
readability, and some details changed to protect soldiers’ confidentiality;
otherwise, these words are theirs alone, with a few opening and concluding thoughts
from the authors to capture key lessons. [Note: contains copyrighted
[PDF format, 210 pages].
The Social Security Retirement Age. Congressional Research Service. Zhe Li. March 7, 2019
The Social Security full retirement age (FRA) is the age at
which workers can first claim full Social Security retired-worker benefits.
Among other factors, a worker’s monthly benefit amount is affected by the age
at which he or she claims benefits relative to the FRA. Benefit adjustments are
made based on the number of months before or after the FRA the worker claims
benefits. The adjustments are intended to provide the worker with roughly the
same total lifetime benefits, regardless of when he or she claims benefits,
based on average life expectancy. Claiming benefits before the FRA results in a
permanent reduction in monthly benefits (to take into account the longer
expected period of benefit receipt); claiming benefits after the FRA results in
a permanent increase in monthly benefits (to take into account the shorter
expected period of benefit receipt).
[PDF format, 14 pages].
Leading by Example: Public Sector Apprenticeships in Kentucky. Urban Institute. Robert I. Lerman, John Marotta, Myca San Miguel. March 8, 2019
While the US government sector employs about 15 percent of
nonfarm workers, federal, state, and local governments have not made
substantial use of apprenticeships to enhance the skills of their workforce,
increase productivity, and widen access to government positions. This report
examines steps undertaken by Kentucky to build talent for state government
through apprenticeship. The early outcomes are promising: departments can adopt
and register apprenticeships quickly, employers are pleased with the productive
contributions of apprentices, and apprentices recognize they are gaining
valuable skills. The success of departments adopting apprenticeships bodes well
for the expansion to other areas. [Note: contains copyrighted
[PDF format, 58 pages].
The State and Local Role in Election Administration: Duties and Structures. Congressional Research Service. Karen L. Shanton. March 4, 2019
The administration of elections in the United States is
highly decentralized. Elections are primarily administered by thousands of
state and local systems rather than a single, unified national system.
States and localities share responsibility for most election
administration duties. Exactly how responsibilities are assigned at the state
and local levels varies both between and within states, but there are some
general patterns in the distribution of duties. States typically have primary
responsibility for making decisions about the rules of elections
(policymaking). Localities typically have primary responsibility for conducting
elections in accordance with those rules (implementation). Localities, with
varying contributions from states, typically also have primary responsibility
for paying for the activities and resources required to conduct elections
[PDF format, 22 pages].
Rebooting the Innovation Agenda. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Jeffrey M. Alexander et al. March 11, 2019
The fourth industrial revolution is underway, and
technological changes will disrupt economic systems, displace workers,
concentrate power and wealth, and erode trust in public institutions and the
democratic political process. Up until now, the focus has largely been on how
technology itself will impact society, with little attention being paid to the
role of institutions.
The relationship between societies and their institutions is
changing, and countries will have to strengthen their capacities to avoid
heightened social divisions. They must build resilience through gradual and intentional
interventions designed for long-term, sustainable development. It is also
essential that institutions work hard to build credibility and use available
development tools, such as development finance institutions and foreign aid, to
mitigate the risks of disruption.
Countries and other stakeholders must pioneer these
initiatives to successfully navigate the disruptions stemming from the fourth
industrial revolution. The revision of existing models of education, skill
development and investment and the integration of different stakeholders into
the conversation will be critical in helping institutions play a productive
role in rebooting the innovation agenda. This new report, Rebooting the
Innovation Agenda, analyzes the need for resilient institution and the role
they are expected to play in the fourth industrial revolution. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 62 pages].
Federal Lands and Related Resources: Overview and Selected Issues for the 116th Congress. Congressional Research Service. Katie Hoover et al. March 18, 2019
The Property Clause in the U.S. Constitution (Article IV,
§3, clause 2) grants Congress the authority to acquire, dispose of, and manage
federal property. The 116th Congress faces multiple policy issues related to
federal lands and natural resources. These issues include how much and which
land the government should own and how lands and resources should be used and
managed. These issues affect local communities, industries, ecosystems, and the
[PDF format, 34 pages].
The Opportunities and Risks of K-12 Student Placement Algorithms. Brookings Institution. Matt Kasman and Jon Valant. February 28, 2019
How students are assigned to schools is changing, especially
in urban areas. After decades of using students’ home addresses to determine
school assignments, many U.S. cities are now turning to placement
algorithms—alongside school choice policies—to determine which students can
attend which particular schools. These algorithms, built on the Nobel
Prize-winning theory of market design, elicit families’ ranked preferences for
schools and use those preferences, along with schools’ priorities, to match
students and schools. [Note: contains copyrighted
[HTML format, various paging].
Developing a National Recruiting Difficulty Index. RAND Corporation. Jeffrey B. Wenger et al. March 13, 2019
The U.S. Army recognizes that the recruiting environment has
a significant impact on its ability to recruit. This report presents a
forecasting model that measures recruiting difficulty to forecast a difficult
or easy recruiting environment. [Note: contains copyrighted
[PDF format, 136 pages].
NYC Civic Corps Program Evaluation. Urban Institute. Nathan Dietz, Daniel Teles, Deondre’ Jones. March 14, 2019
New York City shows a tremendous need for robust social
services. Nearly 3.8 million people (45 percent of residents) live in poverty
or just above the federal poverty level—and income inequality continues to
increase. The scope and scale of these issues, among others, require an
extensive mobilization of resources to respond effectively, but organizations
often lack the capacity to do so. Approximately 5,000 community-based
organizations in NYC provide education, health, economic opportunity, or
emergency management services, but staff and budget constraints are common.
The Office of the Mayor recognizes these challenges in its
long-term strategic plan, One New York: The Plan for a Strong and Just City,
and, as part of its vision, seeks to build the capacity of the civic sector
through its NYC Service office, which oversees civic engagement. The NYC
Service administers the NYC Civic Corps program and connects 100 NYC Civic
Corps members, all of whom are AmeriCorps members, with indirect service
positions at 50 community-based organizations and city agencies. These
connections supply additional support to recruit and manage volunteers.
The Urban Institute conducted an evaluation of the NYC
Service Civic Corps program in 2017–2018 to assess how much organizations
benefit from the Civic Corps members. The evaluation sought to answer whether
NYC Civic Corps members have significantly greater volunteer management
capacity, on average, than similar organizations that do not host AmeriCorps
members provided by NYC Civic Corps. [Note: contains copyrighted
[PDF format, 75 pages].