Investing in Equitable Urban Park Systems: Emerging Funding Strategies and Tools. Urban Institute. Matthew Eldridge, Kimberly Burrowes, Patrick Spauster. July 16, 2019
Urban parks and green space provide significant tangible and
intangible benefits for cities and their residents. However, for residents and
communities to take full advantage of these benefits, parks must be accessible
and high quality. Historically, low-income neighborhoods and communities of
color have had faced barriers in accessing quality parks. To bridge these gaps
and achieve “park equity” (all residents having reasonably equal access to
quality parks), park leaders and their partners are increasingly focused on
directing park investments to communities in greatest need. Drawing from
interviews with park and recreation leaders and a scan of innovative practices
and approaches from across the country, this report highlights funding
strategies and models communities are implementing to place equity and
communities at the center of park investments and funding decisions. In
addition to elevating interesting, replicable examples, this report offers 11
takeaways for park leaders and their government and community partners. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 74 pages].
Terrorist Definitions and Designations Lists: What Technology Companies Need to Know. Brookings Institution. Chris Meserole and Daniel L. Byman. July 19, 2019
This publication is part of a series of papers released by
the Global Research Network on Terrorism and Technology, of which the Brookings
Institution is a member. The research conducted by this network seeks to better
understand radicalisation, recruitment and the myriad of ways terrorist
entities use the digital space. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 15 pages].
Resolving Legislative Differences in Congress: Conference Committees and Amendments Between the Houses. Congressional Research Service. Elizabeth Rybicki. Updated May 22, 2019
The Constitution requires that the House and Senate approve
the same bill or joint resolution in precisely the same form before it is
presented to the President for his signature or veto. To this end, both houses
must pass the same measure and then attempt to reach agreement about its
provisions. The House and Senate may be able to reach agreement by an exchange
of amendments between the houses. Each house has one opportunity to amend the
amendments from the other house, so there can be Senate amendments to House
amendments to Senate amendments to a House bill. House amendments to Senate
bills or amendments are privileged for consideration on the Senate floor;
Senate amendments to House bills or amendments generally are not privileged for
consideration on the House floor. In practice, the House often disposes of
amendments between the houses under the terms of a special rule reported by the
Rules Committee. The Senate sometimes disposes of House amendments by unanimous
consent, but the procedures associated with the exchange of amendments can
[PDF format, 35 pages].
Supporting Students with High-Incidence Disabilities in U.S. Schools: National Findings from the American Educator Panels. RAND Corporation. Laura Stelitano, Rachel Perera, William R. Johnston. June 27, 2019.
The extent to which students with high-incidence
disabilities (SWDs) are afforded effective and specialized instruction depends,
in large part, upon the support their teachers receive. Certain teacher
supports are essential for effectively serving SWDs, including a supportive
school culture, collaboration and planning time, resources and training, and
access to data and tools for using data. In this report, we explore the extent
to which these supports are available to general and special educators, based
on the results of the Measurement, Learning, and Improvement Survey to the RAND
American Teacher Panel, a survey administered to a nationally representative
sample of teachers. While research has established the importance of these
supports, little is known about teachers’ access to them on the nationwide
level and about how school-level factors (such as grade levels served,
percentage of minority students, and poverty level) influence the prevalence of
teacher supports. Overall, teachers’ access to support for serving SWDs varied
by type of support, teacher role, and school level. General educators and
teachers at the high school level were significantly less likely to report
having sufficient access to support. Planning and release time were among the supports
least often deemed sufficient by both general and special educators. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 24 pages].
5G in Five (not so) Easy Pieces. Brookings Institution. Tom Wheeler. July 9, 2019
Throughout the world, ink is being spilled and electrons
exercised in a frenetic focus on fifth generation wireless technology, or 5G.
The 5G discussion, with all its permutations and combinations, has grown to
resemble an elementary school soccer game where everyone chases the ball, first
in one direction, then another.
In classic network engineering terms, the “noise”
surrounding 5G is interfering with the “signal” about just what 5G is and what
is necessary for its introduction. Consideration of 5G is far more serious than
the so-called 5G “race” concocted by those seeking to advantage themselves in
the business or political market—especially the political market. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[HTML format, various paging].
Sharpening Our Efforts: The Role of International Development in Countering Violent Extremism. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Enrique Betancourt et al. June 28, 2019
Thanks to the generous support and cooperation from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the CSIS Project on Prosperity and Development releases this new essay anthology, Sharpening Our Efforts: The Role of International Development in Countering Violent Extremism. As policymakers confront the ongoing challenge of radicalization and violent extremism, it is important that stakeholders and counterterrorism strategists recognize the critical role for development and other non-kinetic approaches to counter violent extremism (CVE). To that end, this new anthology takes a multidimensional role mapping out the role of soft power institutions in enabling lasting peace, prosperity, and global security. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 49 pages].
Understanding the Effects of the US Stress Tests. Brookings Institution. Donald Kohn and Nellie Liang. July 11, 2019
Concurrent stress tests—testing all major banks with the
same macroeconomic and market scenarios at the same time—were a key innovation
growing out of the financial crisis of 2007-09. Their original intent in 2009
was to identify the capital needed by banks to continue functioning in a deep
recession and require them to raise the capital, from private sources or the
government, to support the economy. The stress tests have evolved
considerably since 2009, but the underlying rationale remains to assure that
major banks can continue to supply credit to households and businesses in
circumstances of deep economic and financial distress. The tests allow
policymakers to assess the adequacy of capital buffers and to require
remediation when necessary through modifications to institutions’ capital
plans. They are a strong microprudential tool, with important macroprudential
In this paper, Donald Kohn and Nellie Liang of the Hutchins
Center on Fiscal and Monetary Policy at Brookings focused on assessing some of
the effects of this new prudential tool as implemented in the United States,
and contributing to the Federal Reserve Board’s review of its supervisory
stress tests. They analyzed the data that are publicly disclosed about the
stress tests for their implications for bank capital requirements and risk
management, and marshaled the evidence from existing studies on the effects of
stress tests on credit rather than undertaking new efforts. In addition, they
interviewed a number of people knowledgeable about the stress tests to get
their views on their effects. These included current and former supervisors and
Federal Reserve economists (some of whom are now at consultancies advising
banks on stress tests or at interest groups), current and former bankers
involved in the stress tests at the banks, and other interested observers. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 30 pages].
Fostering Innovation to Respond to Top Challenges in Law Enforcement: Proceedings of the National Institute of Justice’s 2018 Chiefs’ Panel on Priority Law Enforcement Issues and Needs. RAND Corporation. John S. Hollywood et al. July 22, 2019
On August 28 and 29, 2018, the Priority Criminal Justice Needs Initiative hosted a capstone workshop attended by a group of the nation’s top law enforcement executives. The purpose of the workshop was to identify and characterize top issues facing law enforcement today, including both challenges and opportunities, as well as needs for innovation that, if addressed, might help resolve these issues. The panel discussed how law enforcement is faced with serious challenges that often do not have ready solutions available through short-term science and technology development. That said, panel members reported feeling that the challenges were tractable, but addressing these challenges will take concerted and collective effort across the criminal justice community, including stakeholders from local communities, social service providers, vendors, and researchers. Such efforts should consider substantial and systemic improvements to public safety and criminal justice: The panel suggested a potential national commission to revamp criminal justice in the United States. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 39 pages].
Farm Policy: USDA’s 2018 Trade Aid Package. Congressional Research Service. Randy Schnepf et al. June 19, 2019
On early 2018, the Trump Administration—citing concerns over
national security and unfair trade practices—imposed increased tariffs on
certain imported products in general and on U.S. imports from China in
particular. Several of the affected foreign trading partners (including China)
responded to the U.S. tariffs with their own retaliatory tariffs targeting
various U.S. products, especially agricultural commodities.
On July 24, 2018, Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue
announced that the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) would be taking
several temporary actions to assist farmers in response to trade damage from
what the Administration has characterized as “unjustified retaliation.”
Specifically, the Secretary said that USDA would authorize up to $12 billion in
financial assistance—referred to as a trade aid package—for certain
agricultural commodities using Section 5 of the Commodity Credit Corporation
(CCC) Charter Act (15 U.S.C. 714c). USDA intends for the trade aid package to
provide short-term assistance in response to the ongoing trade disputes.
However, the Secretary stated that there would not be further trade-related
financial assistance beyond this $12 billion package. The aid package includes
(1) a Market Facilitation Program (MFP) of direct payments (valued at up to $10
billion) to producers of soybeans, corn, cotton, sorghum, wheat, hogs, and
dairy who are most affected by the trade retaliation (sweet cherries and
almonds were added to this list in September); (2) a Food Purchase and
Distribution Program to partially offset lost export sales of affected
commodities ($1.2 billion); and (3) an Agricultural Trade Promotion (ATP)
Program to expand foreign markets ($200 million).
[PDF format, 21 pages].
State of the News Media: Data and Trends about Key Sectors in the U.S. News Media Industry. Pew Research Center. July 9, 2019.
Since 2004, Pew Research Center has issued an annual report
on key audience and economic indicators for a variety of sectors within the
U.S. news media industry. These data speak to the shifting ways in which Americans
seek out news and information, how news organizations get their revenue, and
the resources available to American journalists as they seek to inform the
public about important events of the day. The press is sometimes called the
fourth branch of government, but in the U.S., it’s also very much a business –
one whose ability to serve the public is dependent on its ability to attract
eyeballs and dollars.
Over the years, the Center’s approach to these indicators
has evolved along with the industry, carefully considering the metrics, sectors
and format in which the data appear. Instead of a single summary report, our
approach is to roll out a series of fact sheets showcasing the most important
current and historical data points for each sector – in an easy-to-digest
format – a few at a time. [Note: contains copyrighted
[HTML format, various paging].