Artificial Intelligence Primer: What is Needed to Maximize AI’s Economic, Social, and Trade Opportunities. Brookings Institution. Joshua P. Meltzer. May 13, 2019
Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to transform
economic growth, commerce, and trade, affecting the types of jobs that are
available and skills that are needed. The United States, China, Japan, Germany,
the United Kingdom, France, and others have recognized the opportunity and are
supporting AI research and development as well as preparing their workforce.
For AI to develop also requires an enabling environment that
includes new regulation in areas such as AI ethics and data access and revisiting
existing laws and regulation in areas such as privacy and intellectual property
(IP) rights to ensure that they work for AI. In addition, AI development
requires an international agenda to avoid unnecessary regulatory heterogeneity
that creates barriers to data access and use and impedes the global diffusion
of AI products. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 26 pages].
How Will Retirement Saving Change by 2050? Prospects for the Millennial Generation. Brookings Institution. William G. Gale, Hilary Gelfond, and Jason Fichtner. March 21, 2019
In “How Will Retirement Saving Change by 2050? Prospects for
the Millennial Generation” William G. Gale, Hilary Gelfond, and Jason Fichtner
consider prospects for retirement saving for members of the millennial
generation, who will be between ages 54 and 69 in 2050. Adequacy of retirement
saving preparation among current and near-retirees is marked by significant
heterogeneity, a characteristic that will likely hold for Millennials as well.
In preparing for retirement, Millennials will have several advantages relative
to previous generations, such as more education, longer working lives, and more
flexible work arrangements, but also several disadvantages, including having to
take more responsibility for their own retirement plans and marrying and
bearing children at later ages. The millennial generation contains a
significantly higher percentage of minorities than previous generations. The
authors find that minority households have tended to accumulate less wealth
than whites in the past, even after controlling for income, education, and
marital status, and the difference appears to be growing over time for black
households relative to whites. Whether these trends persist is central to
understanding how the Millennials will fare in retirement. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 51 pages].
The Value of Energy Tax Incentives for Different Types of Energy Resources. Congressional Research Service. Molly F. Sherlock. March 19, 2019
The U.S. tax code supports the energy sector by providing a
number of targeted tax incentives, or tax incentives available only for the
energy industry. Some policymakers have expressed interest in understanding how
energy tax benefits are distributed across different domestic energy resources.
For example, what percentage of energy-related tax benefits support fossil
fuels (or support renewables)? How much domestic energy is produced using
fossil fuels (or produced using renewables)? And how do these figures compare?
[PDF format, 16 pages].
Preparing the Future Workforce: Early Care and Education Participation among Children of Immigrants. Urban Institute. Erica Greenberg, Victoria Rosenboom, Gina Adams. March 22, 2019
Children of immigrants will make up a critical share of our
nation’s future workforce, but they are less likely than other children to
participate in early education programs known to support school readiness and
long-term productivity. This study describes the characteristics and enrollment
of children of immigrants using the most current and comprehensive dataset
available: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of
2010–11. We find that children of immigrants tend to have fewer resources and
greater need than children of US-born parents but lower rates of enrollment in
center-based preschool. However, programs such as Head Start and state
prekindergarten, as well as public kindergarten programs, are making progress
in closing gaps in access. These findings suggest that current investments in
early education are helping prepare the future workforce for success in 2050
and that expanded investments are warranted. [Note:
contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 38 pages].
Why Governments Count People. YaleGlobal. Joseph Chamie. March 19, 2019
Governments have organized censuses since ancient times, and
as the world’s population approaches 8 billion, governments have more people to
count and analyze than ever before. Censuses help determine efficient
allocation of government funds and political representation. A low median age
suggests the government should devote more funding to education and an older
median age suggests more resources should go toward elder services. Methods and
access to the data remain controversial, explains demographer Joseph Chamie.
Censuses expose flaws, whether income disparity, gender imbalances or even the
influences of climate change and lack of sustainability. Political parties in
power can manipulate perceptions and results with insertion or deletion of a
single question. “Inaccuracies or outright lies defeat the purpose of the
census and disrupt effective governing and meaningful planning,” he writes. “So
every question should have a legitimate public purpose to promote well-being
and reduce problems.” Chamie outlines how concerns about confidentiality or
diversity can erode accuracy even as globalization of communications and travel
reinforce citizen demands for smooth government operations and services. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[HTML format, various paging].
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC): A Primer. Congressional Research Service. John J. Topoleski. March 21, 2019
The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) is a federal
agency established by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974
(ERISA; P.L. 93-406). It was created to protect the pensions of participants
and beneficiaries covered by private sector defined benefit (DB) plans. These
pension plans provide a specified monthly benefit at retirement, usually either
a percentage of salary or a flat dollar amount multiplied by years of service.
Defined contribution (DC) plans, such as 401(k) plans, are not insured. PBGC is
chaired by the Secretary of Labor, with the Secretaries of the Treasury and Commerce
serving as board members.
[PDF format, 25 pages].
Preparing New York City High School Students for the Workforce: Evaluation of the Scholars at Work Program. RAND Corporation. Robert Bozick, Gabriella C. Gonzalez, Serafina Lanna, Monica Mean. March 28, 2019.
In 2009, the New York City Department of Small Business
Services and Department of Education created Scholars at Work (SAW), a program
available to high school seniors enrolled in Career and Technical Education
(CTE) programs at city high schools that opted to participate. Implementation
of SAW was the responsibility of Workforce1 Industrial & Transportation
Career (ITC) Centers. The goal of SAW is to expose students to career
opportunities, to provide them with real-life work experience alongside adults,
and to develop their workplace skills. SAW has two core components, each a
semester in length: a career exploration module and an internship that places
high school seniors with employers. In career exploration, students engage in
activities in a classroom setting designed to develop their soft skills and
workplace competencies while learning about career opportunities through visits
from industry experts. In the internship module, students participate in a
paid, after-school internship at a local business for approximately 13 weeks.
Prepared in response to a 2016 request by the New York City
Mayor’s Office for Economic Opportunity, this report presents the findings of
an external evaluation of the SAW program — in particular, how well it is
preparing students for employment and postsecondary education. Researchers
conducted an implementation study that examined and described SAW’s activities
and processes to understand the extent to which they function as the designers
and implementers of the program intended. They also conducted an outcomes study
to analyze how SAW participants are faring in the labor market, compared with
similar graduates of New York City public schools. [Note:
contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 75 pages].