Millions Learning Real-time Scaling Labs

Millions Learning Real-time Scaling Labs: Designing an Adaptive Learning Process to Support Large-Scale Change in Education.  Brookings Institution. Jenny Perlman Robinson and Molly Curtiss.  July 3, 2018

 Millions Learning, a project of the Center for Universal Education (CUE) at the Brookings Institution, addresses the question of how to scale quality education for all children and youth. CUE is launching Real-time Scaling Labs in partnership with local institutions in a number of countries and U.S. cities to generate more evidence and provide practical recommendations around the process of scaling in global education, encouraging a stronger link between research and practice. These labs are not physical spaces, but rather a process established by CUE and partner institutions to learn from, support, and document existing efforts to scale interventions focused on improving children’s learning as they unfold in real-time. This will include observing, gathering, and analyzing data, as well as encouraging self-reflection, recommending course corrections based on existing evidence, documenting the scaling process in real-time, and sharing ongoing learning with those involved. The ultimate goal is to support initiatives as they scale while simultaneously gaining deeper insight into how policymakers, civil society, and the private sector can most effectively work together to bring about large-scale transformation in the quality of children’s learning and their development. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

 [PDF format, 36 pages].

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Using Social Media and Social Network Analysis in Law Enforcement

Using Social Media and Social Network Analysis in Law Enforcement: Creating a Research Agenda, Including Business Cases, Protections, and Technology Needs. RAND Corporation. John S. Hollywood et al. July 18, 2018

 This report describes the proceedings of an April 2017 expert workshop on the use of social media and social network analysis in law enforcement. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

 [PDF format, 28 pages].

Global Research and Development Expenditures: Fact Sheet

Global Research and Development Expenditures: Fact Sheet. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. John F. Sargent Jr. June 27, 2018

 Research and development (R&D) plays a central role in advanced economies in areas such as economic growth and job creation, industrial competitiveness, national security, energy, agriculture, transportation, public health and well-being, environmental protection, and expanding the frontiers of human knowledge understanding. Accordingly, companies, governments, universities, nonprofit organizations, and others around the world have made substantial investments in R&D. Since 2000, total global R&D expenditures have grown by 170% in current dollars, from $674 billion to more than $1.8 trillion. 

 [PDF format, 5 pages].

U.S. Research and Development Funding and Performance: Fact Sheet

U.S. Research and Development Funding and Performance: Fact Sheet.  Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. John F. Sargent Jr. June 29, 2018

 Research and development (R&D) in the United States is funded and performed by a number of sectors—including the federal government, state governments, businesses, academia, and nonprofit organizations—for a variety of purposes. This fact sheet begins by providing a profile of the U.S. R&D enterprise, including historical trends and current funding by sector and by whether the R&D is basic research, applied research, or development. The final section of this fact sheet includes data on R&D performance by sector.

 [PDF format, 5 pages].

Intellectual Property and the International Trade Commission: An Examination of the Role of the ITC in Protecting IP Rights

Intellectual Property and the International Trade Commission: An Examination of the Role of the ITC in Protecting IP Rights. Center for Strategic & International Studies. William Alan Reinsch, Jonathan Robison, Andrew Lepczyk. June 22, 2018

 Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 has been a powerful tool for protecting U.S. intellectual property (IP) rights and the U.S. market from unfair competition for nearly 100 years. The statute empowers the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) to ban imports of goods that inappropriately use U.S. intellectual property. Since it was last amended in 1988, however, new issues have emerged with the law and the Commission’s role in enforcing its provisions. As the economy modernizes and intellectual property enters the digital realm, we examine the ITC and its role in enforcing IP rights and suggest possible ways the ITC can modernize its operations to better confront the challenges of the twenty-first century. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

 [PDF format, 36 pages].

How Language Can Advance Sustainable Diets: A Summary of Expert Perspectives on How Research into the Language of Plant-based Food Can Change Consumption

How Language Can Advance Sustainable Diets: A Summary of Expert Perspectives on How Research into the Language of Plant-based Food Can Change Consumption. World Resources Institute. Daniel Vennard, Jonathan Wise and Linda Bacon. June 2018

 Food production significantly impacts the environment, but different types of food have different effects. Generally, producing meat, especially from ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats), uses more land and water and emits more greenhouse gases than producing plant-based foods. Therefore, in countries with high meat consumption, shifting diets to include more plant-based foods and less meat can reduce agriculture’s pressure on natural resources.

One potentially high-impact but low-cost strategy to help consumers shift their diets is changing the language used to describe food. Existing research has shown that how food is described influences what people choose, and that many plant-based dishes have names that are not appealing to people who normally eat meat. However, this area is nascent. More research can reveal the potential of improved language to drive consumption of plant-based foods. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

 [PDF format, 16 pages].

City Budgets in an Era of Increased Uncertainty: Understanding the Fiscal Policy Space of Cities

City Budgets in an Era of Increased Uncertainty: Understanding the Fiscal Policy Space of Cities.  Brookings Institution. Michael A. Pagano and Christopher W. Hoene. July 18, 2018

 Cities in the United States are likely to shoulder additional responsibilities during the Trump administration, as federal leaders seek to cut the federal budget and workforce and reduce regulatory authority in Washington. Yet cities’ revenue sources and budgetary constraints vary greatly, shaping their ability to carry out new mandates or raise additional revenues. Some, like Atlanta and Miami, primarily raise revenues through property taxes, while others, like Kansas City and Philadelphia, are authorized by their state governments to collect sales and income taxes as well. Cities in Virginia and Vermont face no property tax or expenditure limitations, while cities in Colorado and California face severe limitations on both tax collections and expenditures. And state funding comprises more than a quarter of municipal budgets in states like Nebraska and New York, but less than seven percent of municipal budgets in Oklahoma and Texas. In other words, given their unique fiscal positions, cities will not respond uniformly to structural shifts—and potential devolution—within American federalism. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

 [PDF format, 44 pages].