Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to transform
economic growth, commerce, and trade, affecting the types of jobs that are
available and skills that are needed. The United States, China, Japan, Germany,
the United Kingdom, France, and others have recognized the opportunity and are
supporting AI research and development as well as preparing their workforce.
For AI to develop also requires an enabling environment that
includes new regulation in areas such as AI ethics and data access and revisiting
existing laws and regulation in areas such as privacy and intellectual property
(IP) rights to ensure that they work for AI. In addition, AI development
requires an international agenda to avoid unnecessary regulatory heterogeneity
that creates barriers to data access and use and impedes the global diffusion
of AI products. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
Place-based revitalization initiatives seek to make every
neighborhood safe and healthy and to connect them to high-quality services.
These initiatives share a few common characteristics. They concentrate
resources in a specific geography; combine physical revitalization with the
provision of services (e.g., health, education, and job training programs);
leverage existing institutions, networks, and capital; and engage local leaders
and residents. However, they have a mixed track record on whether and how much
current residents benefit from such redevelopment. To address these and other
limitations, more place-based initiatives are starting to marry physical
revitalization with intentional efforts to build civic infrastructure. Civic
infrastructure incorporates a broad view of community assets and therefore
seeks to improve physical and civic assets as well as the processes, practices,
and interactions those assets enable. By strengthening civic infrastructure,
revitalizing physical assets can help create equitable outcomes for residents
and increase community benefits. [Note: contains copyrighted
Given that offshore tax havens are largely located in small,
independent states or self-governing territories, it could be assumed that they
have little connection to OECD states and major financial centers such as
London and New York. This is not the case. The so-called tax havens are in fact
part of a much larger network of financial and corporate services that depends
on lawyers, accountants, and bankers located in major Western cities. Only one
part of the havens’ business actually involves providing lower tax rates to
individual foreign account holders.
These techniques originally developed to assist American
executives and Belgian dentists, and later multinational corporations, to limit
their exposure— sometimes lawfully, sometimes unlawfully—to their respective
tax authorities. Today, they’re increasingly deployed to flows of tainted
capital from developing countries, helping those funds transit from their home
jurisdictions and ultimately to the West.
There are more capital flows into the offshore world from
OECD states than from developing countries. The argument of this paper,
however, is that while OECD origin capital flows erode the tax base and some of
the flows amount to illegal tax evasion, the overall effect of the money coming
from developing countries, especially the tainted flows, is more damaging from
both an economic and a security perspective.
In other words, the West, with its rule of law and creation
of the Western-governed offshore economy, has given corrupt elites in
developing countries the tools and capacity to avoid ever establishing the rule
of law in their own countries. They are the beneficiaries of the West’s
firmly-established rule of law and can leverage that advantage against their
own people to ensure that they never benefit from the rule of law themselves.
This is the rule of law paradox. [Note: contains copyrighted
A survey of 93 leaders, representing a wide range of
organizations working to advance human well-being and economic development,
reveals a global development sector in transition and perhaps even turmoil.
Ending extreme poverty is no longer the defining lens through which development
is viewed: State fragility and climate were mentioned nearly three times more
often than poverty, and migration was mentioned more than twice as often.
Leaders worry that responses to these and other global challenges are
inadequate. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
A new wave of energy innovation is remaking the
transportation, electricity, and manufacturing sectors. This so-called fourth
industrial revolution is already creating great uncertainty about the future
energy landscape, lessening common interests between oil-producing nations and
the world’s largest economies. [Note: contains copyrighted
The fourth industrial revolution is underway, and
technological changes will disrupt economic systems, displace workers,
concentrate power and wealth, and erode trust in public institutions and the
democratic political process. Up until now, the focus has largely been on how
technology itself will impact society, with little attention being paid to the
role of institutions.
The relationship between societies and their institutions is
changing, and countries will have to strengthen their capacities to avoid
heightened social divisions. They must build resilience through gradual and intentional
interventions designed for long-term, sustainable development. It is also
essential that institutions work hard to build credibility and use available
development tools, such as development finance institutions and foreign aid, to
mitigate the risks of disruption.
Countries and other stakeholders must pioneer these
initiatives to successfully navigate the disruptions stemming from the fourth
industrial revolution. The revision of existing models of education, skill
development and investment and the integration of different stakeholders into
the conversation will be critical in helping institutions play a productive
role in rebooting the innovation agenda. This new report, Rebooting the
Innovation Agenda, analyzes the need for resilient institution and the role
they are expected to play in the fourth industrial revolution. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
In this report, the authors explore how and why local governments have turned to cooperation to boost economic development. They synthesize highlights from the literature, explore program features from two regional case studies, and share findings from interviews with local practitioners. Although research on the effectiveness of current practices is limited, they identify themes that can inform cooperative economic development. [Note: contains copyrighted material].