Preparing the Future Workforce: Early Care and Education Participation among Children of Immigrants. Urban Institute. Erica Greenberg, Victoria Rosenboom, Gina Adams. March 22, 2019
Children of immigrants will make up a critical share of our
nation’s future workforce, but they are less likely than other children to
participate in early education programs known to support school readiness and
long-term productivity. This study describes the characteristics and enrollment
of children of immigrants using the most current and comprehensive dataset
available: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of
2010–11. We find that children of immigrants tend to have fewer resources and
greater need than children of US-born parents but lower rates of enrollment in
center-based preschool. However, programs such as Head Start and state
prekindergarten, as well as public kindergarten programs, are making progress
in closing gaps in access. These findings suggest that current investments in
early education are helping prepare the future workforce for success in 2050
and that expanded investments are warranted. [Note:
contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 38 pages].
Preparing New York City High School Students for the Workforce: Evaluation of the Scholars at Work Program. RAND Corporation. Robert Bozick, Gabriella C. Gonzalez, Serafina Lanna, Monica Mean. March 28, 2019.
In 2009, the New York City Department of Small Business
Services and Department of Education created Scholars at Work (SAW), a program
available to high school seniors enrolled in Career and Technical Education
(CTE) programs at city high schools that opted to participate. Implementation
of SAW was the responsibility of Workforce1 Industrial & Transportation
Career (ITC) Centers. The goal of SAW is to expose students to career
opportunities, to provide them with real-life work experience alongside adults,
and to develop their workplace skills. SAW has two core components, each a
semester in length: a career exploration module and an internship that places
high school seniors with employers. In career exploration, students engage in
activities in a classroom setting designed to develop their soft skills and
workplace competencies while learning about career opportunities through visits
from industry experts. In the internship module, students participate in a
paid, after-school internship at a local business for approximately 13 weeks.
Prepared in response to a 2016 request by the New York City
Mayor’s Office for Economic Opportunity, this report presents the findings of
an external evaluation of the SAW program — in particular, how well it is
preparing students for employment and postsecondary education. Researchers
conducted an implementation study that examined and described SAW’s activities
and processes to understand the extent to which they function as the designers
and implementers of the program intended. They also conducted an outcomes study
to analyze how SAW participants are faring in the labor market, compared with
similar graduates of New York City public schools. [Note:
contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 75 pages].
Meet the Millions Of Young Adults Who Are Out Of Work. Brookings Institution. Martha Ross and Natalie Holmes. April 9, 2019
Helping young people prepare to engage in work and life as
productive adults is a central challenge for any society. In theory, the path
to employment providing financial security in adulthood is simple: finish high
school, enroll in and complete college or training that is affordable and a
good fit, gain some work experience along the way, and launch a career. But
given that 17 percent of young adults ages 18 to 24 are out of work in mid to
large cities in the U.S., totaling 2.3 million young people, this path does not
appear to work equally well for all, particularly in light of the effects of
the Great Recession and the declining rates of employment among teens and young
adults since about 2000. [Note: contains copyrighted
[PDF format, 36 pages].
Infographic, methods and data sources, and data appendix can be downloaded here – https://www.brookings.edu/research/young-adults-who-are-out-of-work/
Catalyzing Neighborhood Revitalization through Strengthening Civic Infrastructure: Principles for Guiding Place-Based Initiatives. Urban Institute. Aaron Shroyer, Joseph Schilling, Erika C. Poethig. April 16, 2019
Place-based revitalization initiatives seek to make every
neighborhood safe and healthy and to connect them to high-quality services.
These initiatives share a few common characteristics. They concentrate
resources in a specific geography; combine physical revitalization with the
provision of services (e.g., health, education, and job training programs);
leverage existing institutions, networks, and capital; and engage local leaders
and residents. However, they have a mixed track record on whether and how much
current residents benefit from such redevelopment. To address these and other
limitations, more place-based initiatives are starting to marry physical
revitalization with intentional efforts to build civic infrastructure. Civic
infrastructure incorporates a broad view of community assets and therefore
seeks to improve physical and civic assets as well as the processes, practices,
and interactions those assets enable. By strengthening civic infrastructure,
revitalizing physical assets can help create equitable outcomes for residents
and increase community benefits. [Note: contains copyrighted
[PDF format, 42 pages].
School Meals Programs and Other USDA Child Nutrition Programs: A Primer. Congressional Research Service. Kara Clifford Billings, Randy Alison Aussenberg. February 11, 2019
The “child nutrition programs” refer to the U.S. Department
of Agriculture’s Food and Nutrition Service (USDA-FNS) programs that provide
food for children in school or institutional settings. The best known programs,
which serve the largest number of children, are the school meals programs: the
National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP).
The child nutrition programs also include the Child and Adult Care Food Program
(CACFP), which provides meals and snacks in day care and after school settings;
the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP), which provides food during the summer
months; the Special Milk Program (SMP), which supports milk for schools that do
not participate in NSLP or SBP; and the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP),
which funds fruit and vegetable snacks in select elementary schools.
[PDF format, 16 pages].
Leading by Example: Public Sector Apprenticeships in Kentucky. Urban Institute. Robert I. Lerman, John Marotta, Myca San Miguel. March 8, 2019
While the US government sector employs about 15 percent of
nonfarm workers, federal, state, and local governments have not made
substantial use of apprenticeships to enhance the skills of their workforce,
increase productivity, and widen access to government positions. This report
examines steps undertaken by Kentucky to build talent for state government
through apprenticeship. The early outcomes are promising: departments can adopt
and register apprenticeships quickly, employers are pleased with the productive
contributions of apprentices, and apprentices recognize they are gaining
valuable skills. The success of departments adopting apprenticeships bodes well
for the expansion to other areas. [Note: contains copyrighted
[PDF format, 58 pages].
Rebooting the Innovation Agenda. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Jeffrey M. Alexander et al. March 11, 2019
The fourth industrial revolution is underway, and
technological changes will disrupt economic systems, displace workers,
concentrate power and wealth, and erode trust in public institutions and the
democratic political process. Up until now, the focus has largely been on how
technology itself will impact society, with little attention being paid to the
role of institutions.
The relationship between societies and their institutions is
changing, and countries will have to strengthen their capacities to avoid
heightened social divisions. They must build resilience through gradual and intentional
interventions designed for long-term, sustainable development. It is also
essential that institutions work hard to build credibility and use available
development tools, such as development finance institutions and foreign aid, to
mitigate the risks of disruption.
Countries and other stakeholders must pioneer these
initiatives to successfully navigate the disruptions stemming from the fourth
industrial revolution. The revision of existing models of education, skill
development and investment and the integration of different stakeholders into
the conversation will be critical in helping institutions play a productive
role in rebooting the innovation agenda. This new report, Rebooting the
Innovation Agenda, analyzes the need for resilient institution and the role
they are expected to play in the fourth industrial revolution. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 62 pages].