The Global Gender Gap Report 2017. World Economic Forum. November 2, 2017.
Gender parity is fundamental to whether and how economies and societies thrive. Ensuring the full development and appropriate deployment of half of the world’s total talent pool has a vast bearing on the growth, competitiveness and future-readiness of economies and businesses worldwide. The Global Gender Gap Report benchmarks 144 countries on their progress towards gender parity across four thematic dimensions: Economic Participation and Opportunity, Educational Attainment, Health and Survival, and Political Empowerment. In addition, this year’s edition also analyses the dynamics of gender gaps across industry talent pools and occupations. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 361 pages, 10.90 MB].
Global Skill Partnerships: A Proposal for Technical Training in a Mobile World (brief). Center for Global Development. Michael Clemens. October 11, 2017.
Within a decade, Europe will require hundreds of thousands more nurses than it is likely to train. To meet the growing need, nurses will move in large numbers to Western Europe from other countries, including those in Eastern Europe. But Eastern Europe currently lacks nurses already relative to Western Europe, while Eastern European youths crave opportunities in skilled employment. How can nurses trained in Eastern Europe move to Western Europe in a way that benefits both regions? [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[HTML format, various paging].
Later School Start Times in the U.S.: An Economic Analysis. RAND Corporation. Marco Hafner, Martin Stepanek, Wendy M. Troxel. August 30, 2017.
Numerous studies have shown that later school start times are associated with positive student outcomes, including improvements in academic performance, mental and physical health, and public safety. While the benefits are well-documented in the literature, there is opposition against delaying school times across the U.S. A major argument is the claim that delaying school start times will result in significant additional costs due to changes in transportation, such as rescheduling bus routes. This study investigates the economic implications of later school start times by examining a policy experiment and its subsequent state-wide economic effects of a state-wide universal shift in school start times to 8:30 a.m.
Using a novel macroeconomic modelling approach, the study estimates changes in the economic performance of 47 U.S. states following a delayed school start time, which includes the benefits of higher academic performance of students and reduced car crash rates. The benefit-cost projections of this study suggest that delaying school start times is a cost-effective, population-level strategy which could have a significant impact on public health and the U.S. economy. From a policy perspective, the study’s findings demonstrate the significant economic gains resulting from the delay in school start times over a relatively short period of time following the adoption of the policy change. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 57 pages, 1.07 MB].
What’s In, What’s Out: Designing Benefits for Universal Health Coverage. Center for Global Development. Amanda Glassman, Ursula Giedion and Peter C. Smith. July 3, 2017.
What’s In, What’s Out: Designing Benefits for Universal Health Coverage argues that the creation of an explicit health benefits plan—a defined list of services that are and are not available—is an essential element in creating a sustainable system of universal health coverage. With contributions from leading health economists and policy experts, the book considers the many dimensions of governance, institutions, methods, political economy, and ethics that are needed to decide what’s in and what’s out in a way that is fair, evidence-based, and sustainable over time. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 378 pages, 5.48 MB].
Impacts of Onshore Oil and Gas Development: Managing Societal and Environmental Risks. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Frank A. Verrastro et al. June 27, 2017
This note provides highlights from a one-day CSIS workshop held April 26, 2017, with government, state regulators, industry, and policy experts exploring ongoing efforts to minimize and manage upstream environmental, health, safety, and societal risks associated with U.S. onshore oil and gas production. The workshop was the second in a three-part workshop series, with the first part covering key issues concerning the role of U.S. tight oil production in global markets and the final installment to target global natural gas markets. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 15 pages, 395.88 KB].
Informing Pittsburgh’s Options to Address Lead in Water. RAND Corporation. Linnea Warren May, Jordan R. Fischbach, Michele Abbott. June 27, 2017.
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania is currently struggling to manage and improve its aging water system, with a focus on elevated lead levels for many customers. The issue is well covered in the local media, and several steps are being taken or proposed for remediating lead in Pittsburgh’s tap water. Under federal and state regulatory action and pressure from residents, the city is at a critical decision point for addressing the issue of lead in its water. This Perspective reviews the history and recent developments related to the use of lead in Pittsburgh’s water system and the policy options for lead remediation currently being weighed by local decisionmakers.
The authors review the costs, regulatory barriers, and feasibility of the various options under consideration, including the City of Pittsburgh’s new Safe Water Program and multiple pipe replacement options. They conclude with recommendations, including ensuring optimal pipe corrosion control and filtering in the immediate term and pursuing innovations from other cities to reduce the public and private costs of the permanent solution of full lead service line replacement. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 33 pages, 821.51 KB].
Federal Health Centers: An Overview. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Elayne J. Heisler. May 19, 2017
The federal Health Center Program is authorized in Section 330 of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) (42 U.S.C. §254b) and administered by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) within the Department of Health and Human Services. The program awards grants to support outpatient primary care facilities that provide care to primarily low-income individuals or individuals located in areas with few health care providers.
Federal health centers are required to provide health care to all individuals, regardless of their ability to pay, and to be located in geographic areas with few health care providers. These requirements make health centers part of the health safety net—providers that serve the uninsured, the underserved, or those enrolled in Medicaid. Data compiled by HRSA demonstrate that health centers serve the intended safety net population, as the majority of patients are uninsured or enrolled in Medicaid. Some research also suggests that health centers are cost-effective; researchers have found that patients seen at health centers have lower health care costs than those served in other settings. In general, research has found that health centers, among other outcomes, improve health, reduce costs, and provide access to health care for populations that may otherwise not obtain health care.
[PDF format, 38 pages, 1 MB].