The ongoing coronavirus outbreak has brought privacy and surveillance concerns to the forefront – from hacked video conferencing sessions to proposed government tracking of people’s cellphones as a measure to limit and prevent the spread of the virus. Over the past year, Pew Research Center has surveyed Americans on their views related to privacy, personal data and digital surveillance. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
One hundred years ago, the United States ratified the Nineteenth Amendment, granting women the right to vote. The publication of the Winter 2020 issue of Dædalus “Women & Equality,” guest edited by Nannerl O. Keohane (Academy Member; Princeton University; Stanford University) and Frances McCall Rosenbluth (Academy Member; Yale University), at the centennial is a celebration of this victory for women’s rights. Yet while the inclusion of women in the electorate was a momentous occasion, it notably left behind most Black women, and while women have made incredible strides toward equality since, there is still a long way to go. This collection of essays, which is only the third to explore this topic in Dædalus’s sixty-five-year history, therefore is not only a celebration of the accomplishments of women around the world toward equality, it is also an invitation to further reflection and a call to action, assessing remaining obstacles and pointing a way toward workable solutions. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
Human Rights are part of the American DNA. Congress has long
advocated for human rights to play an integral role in U.S. foreign policy,
with significant success. However, rising authoritarianism and the gross human
rights violations taking place around the world call for immediate and stronger
U.S. leadership and Congressional action. To that end, the Human Rights
Initiative of CSIS worked with CSIS scholars, who developed recommendations
relevant to their expertise that identify how Congress can build on its past
human rights leadership to meet today’s challenges. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
The extent to which students with high-incidence
disabilities (SWDs) are afforded effective and specialized instruction depends,
in large part, upon the support their teachers receive. Certain teacher
supports are essential for effectively serving SWDs, including a supportive
school culture, collaboration and planning time, resources and training, and
access to data and tools for using data. In this report, we explore the extent
to which these supports are available to general and special educators, based
on the results of the Measurement, Learning, and Improvement Survey to the RAND
American Teacher Panel, a survey administered to a nationally representative
sample of teachers. While research has established the importance of these
supports, little is known about teachers’ access to them on the nationwide
level and about how school-level factors (such as grade levels served,
percentage of minority students, and poverty level) influence the prevalence of
teacher supports. Overall, teachers’ access to support for serving SWDs varied
by type of support, teacher role, and school level. General educators and
teachers at the high school level were significantly less likely to report
having sufficient access to support. Planning and release time were among the supports
least often deemed sufficient by both general and special educators. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
Recent high-profile data breaches and other concerns about
how third parties protect the privacy of individuals in the digital age have
raised national concerns over legal protections of Americans’ electronic data.
Intentional intrusions into government and private computer networks and
inadequate corporate privacy and cybersecurity practices have exposed the personal
information of millions of Americans to unwanted recipients. At the same time,
internet connectivity has increased and varied in form in recent years.
Americans now transmit their personal data on the internet at an exponentially
higher rate than in the past, and their data are collected, cultivated, and
maintained by a growing number of both “consumer facing” and “behind the
scenes” actors such as data brokers. As a consequence, the privacy,
cybersecurity and protection of personal data have emerged as a major issue for
The “discussion drafts” of baseline privacy bills released
late last year offer a glimpse of the taxonomy of issues up for debate:
What is the regulatory model?
What kinds of data are covered?
What sectors and what entities?
What rights do individuals have?
What obligations do businesses have in
How are these rights enforced—by what agency and
with what powers?
How is pre-emption handled?
The question of the regulatory model is the keystone that
overarches these and holds the rest together. Several of the draft bills present
concrete signs of an emerging shift in the underlying model for privacy
regulation in the current discussion, from one based on consumer choice to
another focused on business behavior in handling data. This paper focuses on
this key element of the taxonomy—how proposals reflect this shifting paradigm
and how the change affects other aspects of privacy protection. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
Supporters of Republican and Democratic candidates in the upcoming congressional election are deeply divided over the government’s role in ensuring health care, the fairness of the nation’s economic system and views of racial equality in the United States. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
Human trafficking survivors do not typically find the traditional criminal justice system’s punitive outcomes for traffickers to match their views of justice, favoring alternative approaches. Drawing from qualitative interviews with 80 survivors of sex and labor trafficking, this brief documents survivors’ experiences with and perceptions of alternative practices, including procedural, restorative, and transitional justice. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
To combat the global threat of terrorism, countries have passed and implemented numerous laws that inadvertently or intentionally diminished the space for civil society. States conflate terrorism with broader issues of national security, which is then used as a convenient justification to stifle dissent, including civil society actors that aim to hold governments accountable. As the global terror landscape becomes more complex and dire, attacks on the rights to the freedom of expression, association, and peaceful assembly only increase. This report analyzes the impact of counterterrorism efforts on civic space, examines its manifestations in various socioeconomic and political contexts, and explores various approaches to disentangle and reconcile security and civil society. It features case studies on Australia, Bahrain, Burkina Faso, Hungary, and India. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
This report investigates opportunities to diversify and broaden support (financial and otherwise) for nongovernmental approaches to realizing human rights. Such analysis is essential in light of global trends, including the relative scarcity of human rights charitable funding from local sources and increasing governmental efforts to restrict the foreign flow of funds to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The author argues for applying the concept of “business models” to human rights NGOs in order to organize thinking on areas for potential innovation according to function rather than form. He uses a business model framework for exploring examples of innovative thinking according to the following categories: (1) revenue streams; (2) key partners and resources; (3) “customer” (i.e., beneficiary or stakeholder) relationships and channels; and (4) cost structure. The report highlights innovative strategies that NGOs and others can pursue and structures they can adopt to pursue them, with a view to enhancing their impact, sustainability, and resilience. [Note: contains copyrighted material].