Privacy Policy and Competition

Privacy Policy and Competition. Brookings Institution. Alex Marthews and Catherine Tucker. December 5, 2019

Commercial privacy protection and competition law have long been jointly regulated by a single authority – the FTC – in the US. Though managed separately, both types of law have at their heart a desire to protect consumers. Antitrust law tries to ensure that consumers’ ability to choose between products is not restricted by anti-competitive acts. In the US, commercial privacy is protected through consumer protection law, which tries to ensure that consumers’ ability to choose between products is not restricted by misleading information. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 28 pages].

Real-Time Crime Centers in Chicago: Evaluation of the Chicago Police Department’s Strategic Decision Support Centers

Real-Time Crime Centers in Chicago: Evaluation of the Chicago Police Department’s Strategic Decision Support Centers. RAND Corporation. John S. Hollywood et al. December 4, 2019.

Strategic Decision Support Centers (SDSCs) are the Chicago Police Department’s district-level real-time crime centers, launched in January 2017 and expanded in 2018. They serve as command and control centers for staff to gain awareness of what is happening in their districts and decide on responses. SDSCs support daily and weekly planning meetings and provide near–real-time support for detecting, responding, and investigating crimes as they occur. Their objectives are to improve districts’ abilities to reduce crime, hold offenders accountable, improve officer safety, and reduce service times.

In this report, the authors evaluate the processes, organizational structures, and technologies employed in the SDSCs. They also assess the extent to which the introduction of SDSCs was associated with reductions in crime levels in the districts. They find that SDSCs are a promising tool for supporting crime reduction. According to the authors’ models, a district that adds an SDSC can expect to see reductions in at least some of the ten types of major crimes modeled, including shootings, robbery, burglary, and criminal sexual assault.

More broadly, the authors see SDSCs as a promising model for improving law enforcement agencies’ awareness of their communities, improving their decisionmaking, and carrying out more effective and more efficient operations that lead to crime reductions and other policing benefits. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 98 pages].

Youth Violence Prevention in the United States: Examining International Terrorists, Domestic Terrorists, School Shooters, and Gang Members

Youth Violence Prevention in the United States: Examining International Terrorists, Domestic Terrorists, School Shooters, and Gang Members. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Sarah Bast, Victoria DeSimone. September 25, 2019

This report concludes that international terrorists, domestic terrorists, school shooters, and gang members share some common factors that made them vulnerable to radicalization to violence. By focusing on the areas of commonality, it would be possible to further prevention efforts on all four types of violence rather than isolating initiatives. Efforts should focus on the personal, group, and community-level, aiming to provide early education, intervention, or off-ramping options. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 51 pages].

Countering Threats to Correctional Institution Security: Identifying Innovation Needs to Address Current and Emerging Concerns

Countering Threats to Correctional Institution Security: Identifying Innovation Needs to Address Current and Emerging Concerns. RAND Corporation.  Joe Russo et al. July 30, 2019

Some threats to correctional institutional security — e.g., violence, escape attempts, contraband — are as old as the institutions themselves, while other threats — e.g., computer hacking, synthetic drugs, cell phones, drones — have evolved with societal and technological changes. Many of these threats present risks to public safety as a whole. In light of the ongoing challenges the corrections sector faces in countering these threats, RAND researchers convened an expert workshop to better understand the challenges and identify the high-priority needs associated with threats to institutional security.

Unfortunately, resource and staffing challenges limit the ability of correctional institutions to adapt to shifts in threats and to adjust security and staffing strategies over time. Furthermore, a perpetual lack of empirical data hampers efforts to effectively develop interventions to address threats. Addressing the research needs and developing the tools and resources — as prioritized by the workshop participants — is one route to providing correctional institutions the support needed to confront security threats going forward. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 28 pages].

Learning to Build Police-Community Trust

Learning to Build Police-Community Trust: Implementation Assessment Findings from the Evaluation of the National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice. Urban Institute. Jesse Jannetta et al. August 8, 2019

This research report documents the training, policy development, and reconciliation activities of the six cities that took part in the National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice, an effort to promote more equitable, just, and respectful policing practices and improve relationships and trust between law enforcement and community members. We found that the training component of the Initiative, which exposed officers to concepts of procedural justice and implicit bias, was implemented as intended and was well received by officers. In addition, the reconciliation framework used to improve relationships between police and communities was powerful and impactful, leading police departments to make changes to their policies to build trust and institutionalize improvements to practices. We also observed that local contexts affected the implementation process, with factors such as police leadership stability and the dynamics underlying relations between police, political leadership, and the community facilitating or impeding progress. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 112 pages].

Sharpening Our Efforts: The Role of International Development in Countering Violent Extremism

Sharpening Our Efforts: The Role of International Development in Countering Violent Extremism. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Enrique Betancourt et al. June 28, 2019 

Thanks to the generous support and cooperation from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the CSIS Project on Prosperity and Development releases this new essay anthology, Sharpening Our Efforts: The Role of International Development in Countering Violent Extremism. As policymakers confront the ongoing challenge of radicalization and violent extremism, it is important that stakeholders and counterterrorism strategists recognize the critical role for development and other non-kinetic approaches to counter violent extremism (CVE). To that end, this new anthology takes a multidimensional role mapping out the role of soft power institutions in enabling lasting peace, prosperity, and global security. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 49 pages].

Fostering Innovation to Respond to Top Challenges in Law Enforcement

Fostering Innovation to Respond to Top Challenges in Law Enforcement: Proceedings of the National Institute of Justice’s 2018 Chiefs’ Panel on Priority Law Enforcement Issues and Needs. RAND Corporation. John S. Hollywood et al. July 22, 2019

On August 28 and 29, 2018, the Priority Criminal Justice Needs Initiative hosted a capstone workshop attended by a group of the nation’s top law enforcement executives. The purpose of the workshop was to identify and characterize top issues facing law enforcement today, including both challenges and opportunities, as well as needs for innovation that, if addressed, might help resolve these issues. The panel discussed how law enforcement is faced with serious challenges that often do not have ready solutions available through short-term science and technology development. That said, panel members reported feeling that the challenges were tractable, but addressing these challenges will take concerted and collective effort across the criminal justice community, including stakeholders from local communities, social service providers, vendors, and researchers. Such efforts should consider substantial and systemic improvements to public safety and criminal justice: The panel suggested a potential national commission to revamp criminal justice in the United States. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 39 pages].