2016 Law Enforcement Use of Social Media Survey: A Joint Publication by the International Association of Chiefs of Police and the Urban Institute. KiDeuk Kim, Ashlin Oglesby-Neal, Edward Mohr. March 3, 2017
A national scan of practice among law enforcement agencies across the United States reveals that they use social media to notify the public of safety concerns, manage public relations, and gather evidence for criminal investigations. The Urban Institute and the International Association of Chiefs of Police partnered to develop a comprehensive understanding of law enforcement’s use of social media. A total of 539 agencies representing 48 states participated in the survey and answered questions regarding their use of social media, the management of social media engagement activities, barriers to success, and their future social media needs. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 22 pages, 410.63 KB].
Human Smuggling: Ruthless Crime or Invaluable Service? YaleGlobal . Joseph Chamie. 22 December 2016
Human smuggling is not new or easy to stop. Governments consider the activity a crime, yet migrants fleeing war, poverty, persecution or disasters seek out the services of experienced smugglers. The most desperate stories draw global sympathy. “For many unauthorized migrants, smugglers are freedom facilitators,” concedes Joseph Chamie, demography expert and former director of the United Nations Population Division. Analysts do not agree on the best approach for slowing human smuggling: Some urge tight border security, but others point out that walls and other barriers force migrants to rely on smugglers. Open borders would end smuggling but would disrupt communities and countries. Chamie describes the many challenges confronting governments including varying perceptions among their own citizens and even border guards or police who look the other way. He concludes, “Many consider human smuggling as permissible or even justified when helping those escaping persecution or desperate conditions.” Good governance emphasizes compassion and security.[ Note: contains copyrighted material].
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March-In Rights Under the Bayh-Dole Act. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. John R. Thomas. September 23, 2016.
Congress approved the Bayh–Dole Act, P.L. 96–517, in order to address concerns about the commercialization of technology developed with public funds. This 1980 legislation awards title to inventions made with federal government support if the contractor consists of a small business, a university, or other non–profit institution. A subsequent presidential memorandum extended this policy to all federal government contractors. As a result, the contractor may obtain a patent on its invention, providing it an exclusive right in the invention during the patent’s term. The Bayh–Dole Act endeavors to use patent ownership as an incentive for private sector development and commercialization of federally funded research and development (R&D). The federal government retains certain rights in inventions produced with its financial assistance under the Bayh–Dole Act.
[PDF format, 17 pages, 613.2 KB].
Interior Immigration Enforcement: Criminal Alien Programs. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. William A. Kandel. September 8, 2016.
Congress has long supported efforts to identify, detain, and remove criminal aliens, defined as noncitizens who have been convicted of crimes in the United States. The apprehension and expeditious removal of criminal aliens has been a statutory priority since 1986, and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and one of its predecessor agencies have operated programs targeting criminal aliens since 1988. Investments in DHS’s Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) interior enforcement programs since 2004 have increased the number of potentially removable aliens identified within the United States.
[PDF format, 28 pages, 846.84 KB].
Local Justice Reinvestment: Strategies, Outcomes, and Keys to Success. Urban Institute. Erika Parks et al. August 18, 2016.
Over the past six years, 17 local jurisdictions across the country have implemented policies to reduce their jail populations and costs, improve public safety, and increase the efficiency of their justice system. Through the Justice Reinvestment Initiative, sites implemented policies to address frequent front-end users, improve pretrial strategies, apply evidence-based practices in community supervision, and enhance data systems. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 24 pages, 396.2 KB].
Trade-Based Money Laundering: Overview and Policy Issues. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Rena S. Miller et al. June 22, 2016.
The U.S. government has historically focused on TBML schemes involving drug proceeds from Latin America, particularly the Black Market Peso Exchange (BMPE). Although a number of anecdotal case studies in recent years have revealed instances in which TBML is used by known terrorist groups and other non-state armed groups, including Hezbollah, the Treasury Department’s June 2015 National Terrorist Financing Risk Assessment concluded that TBML is not a dominant method for terrorist financing.
[PDF format, 21 pages, 866.5 KB].
The First Responder Network (FirstNet) and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Linda K. Moore. June 17, 2016.
Congress included provisions in the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 (P.L. 112–96) for planning, building, and managing a new, nationwide, broadband network for public safety communications, by creating the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet). The act allocated 10 MHz of additional radio frequency spectrum to accommodate the new network and required that the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assign a license to FirstNet, comprising the newly designated frequencies plus 10 MHz previously assigned to states by the FCC for public safety use. In addition, the act designated federal appropriations of over $7 billion for the network and other public safety needs. These funds are provided through new revenue from the auction of licenses to the commercial sector in other spectrum bands.
[PDF format, 29 pages, 988.86 KB].