The Long-Term Impact of Aging on the Federal Budget

The Long-Term Impact of Aging on the Federal Budget. Brookings Institution. Louise Sheiner. January 11, 2018

 The United States is in the midst of a demographic transition. Just 10 years ago, the share of the population that was 65 or older was only 12½ percent. Today, it is 15 percent, and in just 20 years, it is projected to reach 21 percent. These demographic changes have aroused considerable concern about our fiscal future, as much of the budget of the federal government is allocated to old-age entitlement programs. In particular, Social Security, which provides public pensions, and Medicare, which provides health insurance to the aged, will rise as a share of GDP as the baby boom generation enters retirement. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

 [PDF format, 25 pages].


The Changing Global Religious Landscape

The Changing Global Religious Landscape. Pew Research Center. April 5, 2017.

More babies were born to Christian mothers than to members of any other religion in recent years, reflecting Christianity’s continued status as the world’s largest religious group. But this is unlikely to be the case for much longer: Less than 20 years from now, the number of babies born to Muslims is expected to modestly exceed births to Christians, according to new Pew Research Center demographic estimates. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 46 pages, 2 MB].

Reducing the Risks from Rapid Demographic Change

Reducing the Risks from Rapid Demographic Change. Atlantic Council. Matthew J. Burrows. September 9, 2016.

According to the report, the West’s postwar social welfare system is under growing threat as the global demographic structure is being turned upside down. And it is not just the West, but also China and other middle-income powers who will have to deal with an aging workforce and unsustainable health and pension costs in the next decade. For sub-Saharan African countries whose birthrates remain high, overpopulation carries big costs not only for them, but for the rest of the world, which will depend on them for a growing proportion of the world’s workforce. Burrows explores how longer life expectancies, aging workforces, and high birthrates will affect the future economic growth and development of countries around the world. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 30 pages, 4.53 MB].

Diversity Defines the Millennial Generation

Diversity Defines the Millennial Generation. Brookings Institution. William H. Frey. June 28, 2016.

Racial diversity will be the most defining and impactful characteristic of the millennial generation. Millennials between ages 18 and 34 are now synonymous with America’s young adults, fully occupying labor force and voting ages. They comprise 23 percent of the total population, 30 percent of the voting age population, and 38 percent of the primary working age population. Among racial minorities their numbers are even more imposing. Millennials make up 27 percent of the total minority population, 38 percent of voting age minorities, and a whopping 43 percent of primary working age minorities. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

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Birthright Citizenship and Children Born in the United States to Alien Parents: An Overview of the Legal Debate

Birthright Citizenship and Children Born in the United States to Alien Parents: An Overview of the Legal Debate. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Alexandra M. Wyatt. October 28, 2015.

The first clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, known as the Citizenship Clause, provides that “[a]ll persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.” This generally has been taken to mean that any person born in the United States automatically gains U.S. citizenship, regardless of the citizenship or immigration status of the person’s parents, with limited exceptions such as children born to recognized foreign diplomats. The current rule is often called “birthright citizenship.”

[PDF format, 25 pages, 723.95 KB].

Into the Mainstream: Rethinking Public Services for Diverse and Mobile Populations

Into the Mainstream: Rethinking Public Services for Diverse and Mobile Populations. Meghan Benton et al. Migration Policy Institute. June 2015.

Despite the broad appeal of the concept of “mainstreaming” in integration policy in Europe, few agree on its exact meaning, according to the report. The report synthesizes the findings of the UPSTREAM project’s country case studies, which examined the extent to which governments in France, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and the United Kingdom are employing mainstreaming to meet the needs of rapidly diversifying populations. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[HTML format with a link to the PDF file].

From Refugee to Migrant? Labor Mobility’s Protection Potential

From Refugee to Migrant? Labor Mobility’s Protection Potential. Migration Policy Institute. Katy Long. May 2015.

There has been growing international recognition that continued movement and migration often play an important role in shaping refugees’ lives after their initial flight. The report considers the extent to which labor migration is being used, or could be used in the future, to strengthen the international refugee protection regime and facilitate durable solutions for more refugees, many of whom have been displaced for many years. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 30 pages, 1.57 MB].