Face Recognition Technologies: Designing Systems that Protect Privacy and Prevent Bia

Face Recognition Technologies: Designing Systems that Protect Privacy and Prevent Bias. RAND Corporation. Douglas Yeung et al. May 14, 2020

The objective of face recognition technologies (FRTs) is to efficiently detect and recognize people captured on camera. Although these technologies have many practical security-related purposes, advocacy groups and individuals have expressed apprehensions about their use. The research reported here was intended to highlight for policymakers the high-level privacy and bias implications of FRT systems. In the report, the authors describe privacy as a person’s ability to control information about them. Undesirable bias consists of the inaccurate representation of a group of people based on characteristics, such as demographic attributes. Informed by a literature review, the authors propose a heuristic with two dimensions: consent status (with or without consent) and comparison type (one-to-one or some-to-many). This heuristic can help determine a proposed FRT’s level of privacy and accuracy. The authors then use more in-depth case studies to identify “red flags” that could indicate privacy and bias concerns: complex FRTs with unexpected or secondary use of personal or identifying information; use cases in which the subject does not consent to image capture; lack of accessible redress when errors occur in image matching; the use of poor training data that can perpetuate human bias; and human interpretation of results that can introduce bias and require additional storage of full-face images or video. This report is based on an exploratory project and is not intended to comprehensively introduce privacy, bias, or FRTs. Future work in this area could include examinations of existing systems, reviews of their accuracy rates, and surveys of people’s expectations of privacy in government use of FRTs. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 88 pages].

Fighting Corruption for U.S. Economic and National Security Interests

Fighting Corruption for U.S. Economic and National Security Interests. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Daniel F. Runde, Christopher Metzger. April 13, 2020

Corruption plagues governments, economies, and societies around the world. According to the World Economic Forum (WEF), the amount of money lost to corruption globally is $2 trillion a year. This money could go a long way toward filling the financing gap for the United Nation’s 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and preparing countries for global pandemics such as Covid-19. The United States should recapture its leadership on global anti-corruption efforts for a number of reasons, but most critically for economic ones. U.S. global competitors, such as China and Russia, offer an alternative development model that largely ignores issues of transparency, rule of law, and good governance. If all companies had to abide by the same anti-corruption legislation and there was more transparency in procurement processes, then U.S. companies would have a better chance of winning contracts. Economic growth in developing countries reduces unemployment, increases stability, and supports U.S. national security interests in the process as well. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 31 pages].

Anti-Corruption in the Americas: What Works?

Anti-Corruption in the Americas: What Works? Center for Strategic & International Studies. Mark L. Schneider. February 25, 2020

Over the past 15 years, Latin America and the global community have been forced to acknowledge that systemic corruption and organized crime networks have increasingly posed serious existential threats to democracy. Organized crime and related corruption in Latin America have generated the world’s highest rates of homicides, kidnappings, assaults, and drug trafficking for nations not at war, destroying lives and families throughout the region. They also undermine political institutions and the rule of law, which in turn weaken legitimate business, destroy social cohesion, and foster generalized fear at all levels of society. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 7 pages].

Cybercrime Prevention Principles for Internet Service Providers

Cybercrime Prevention Principles for Internet Service Providers. World Economic Forum. January 23, 2020

While certain cyberattacks focus on specific organizations, the majority target the largest number of internet users possible. Such attacks are often relatively easy for cybercriminals to undertake and can cause serious harm. According to Cybersecurity Ventures, the impact of indiscriminate malicious activity online can be significant and carries an estimated global price tag of $6 trillion in 2021.
The World Economic Forum Platform for Shaping the Future of Cybersecurity and Digital Trust brought together a group of leading ISPs and multilateral organizations to develop new ways to protect and prevent these attacks from reaching consumers. Following a year of development and testing, four actionable principles were identified as successful in preventing malicious activities from getting “down the pipes” to consumers, set out in the report. Each principle is considered from the perspective of the challenges it is seeking to address, as well as providing demonstrable evidence from service providers of the benefits of implementation. Further, more technical detail on how each principle could be implemented is also provided in related recommendations. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 32 pages].

Generation AI Establishing Global Standards for Children and AI

Generation AI Establishing Global Standards for Children and AI. World Economic Forum. September 11, 2019.

On 6-7 May 2019, the World Economic Forum Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution and its partners UNICEF and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR) hosted a workshop in San Francisco on the joint “Generation AI” initiative. This workshop identified deliverables in two key areas: 1) public policy guidelines that direct countries on creating new laws focused on children and 2) a corporate governance charter that guides companies leveraging AI to design their products and services with children in mind. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 18 pages]. 

Federal Preemption: A Legal Primer

Federal Preemption: A Legal Primer. Congressional Research Service.  Jay B. Sykes, Nicole Vanatko.  July 23, 2019

The Constitution’s Supremacy Clause provides that federal law is “the supreme Law of the Land” notwithstanding any state law to the contrary. This language is the foundation for the doctrine of federal preemption, according to which federal law supersedes conflicting state laws. The Supreme Court has identified two general ways in which federal law can preempt state law. First, federal law can expressly preempt state law when a federal statute or regulation contains explicit preemptive language. Second, federal law can impliedly preempt state law when Congress’s preemptive intent is implicit in the relevant federal law’s structure and purpose.

[PDF format, 32 pages].

Human Rights in a Shifting Landscape: Recommendations for Congress

Human Rights in a Shifting Landscape: Recommendations for Congress. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Amy K. Lehr et al. September 9, 2019

Human Rights are part of the American DNA. Congress has long advocated for human rights to play an integral role in U.S. foreign policy, with significant success. However, rising authoritarianism and the gross human rights violations taking place around the world call for immediate and stronger U.S. leadership and Congressional action. To that end, the Human Rights Initiative of CSIS worked with CSIS scholars, who developed recommendations relevant to their expertise that identify how Congress can build on its past human rights leadership to meet today’s challenges. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 59 pages].

Resolving Legislative Differences in Congress: Conference Committees and Amendments Between the Houses

Resolving Legislative Differences in Congress: Conference Committees and Amendments Between the Houses.  Congressional Research Service. Elizabeth Rybicki. Updated May 22, 2019

The Constitution requires that the House and Senate approve the same bill or joint resolution in precisely the same form before it is presented to the President for his signature or veto. To this end, both houses must pass the same measure and then attempt to reach agreement about its provisions. The House and Senate may be able to reach agreement by an exchange of amendments between the houses. Each house has one opportunity to amend the amendments from the other house, so there can be Senate amendments to House amendments to Senate amendments to a House bill. House amendments to Senate bills or amendments are privileged for consideration on the Senate floor; Senate amendments to House bills or amendments generally are not privileged for consideration on the House floor. In practice, the House often disposes of amendments between the houses under the terms of a special rule reported by the Rules Committee. The Senate sometimes disposes of House amendments by unanimous consent, but the procedures associated with the exchange of amendments can become complicated.

[PDF format, 35 pages].

Sharpening Our Efforts: The Role of International Development in Countering Violent Extremism

Sharpening Our Efforts: The Role of International Development in Countering Violent Extremism. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Enrique Betancourt et al. June 28, 2019 

Thanks to the generous support and cooperation from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the CSIS Project on Prosperity and Development releases this new essay anthology, Sharpening Our Efforts: The Role of International Development in Countering Violent Extremism. As policymakers confront the ongoing challenge of radicalization and violent extremism, it is important that stakeholders and counterterrorism strategists recognize the critical role for development and other non-kinetic approaches to counter violent extremism (CVE). To that end, this new anthology takes a multidimensional role mapping out the role of soft power institutions in enabling lasting peace, prosperity, and global security. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 49 pages].

The Rule of Law: A Critical Building Block for Good Governance and Economic Growth

The Rule of Law: A Critical Building Block for Good Governance and Economic Growth. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Conor M. Savoy. June 18, 2019

This report seeks to provide a brief overview of how donors have traditionally approached the rule of law, what the problem is from an investment climate perspective, an overview of U.S. support for rule of law, and, finally, recommendations going forward. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 23 pages].