Federally Funded Academic Research Requirements: Background and Issues in Brief

Federally Funded Academic Research Requirements: Background and Issues in Brief. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Laurie A. Harris, Marcy E. Gallo. February 28, 2017

For decades, the federal government and academic research institutions have been partners in supporting American innovation, competitiveness, and economic growth. The federal government is the largest source of academic research and development (R&D) funding in the United States, providing funds through more than two dozen federal agencies, with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) providing the largest portions of federal R&D funding to U.S. colleges and universities.
As part of oversight of federal funding for academic research, Congress and federal agencies have established requirements through statutes, regulations, and guidance documents that U.S. universities and other research institutions must comply with when applying for, receiving, and reporting on the results of federal research grants. Such requirements seek to ensure transparency and effectiveness of federal funds, while helping to prevent waste, fraud, and abuse.

[PDF format, 16 pages, 695.76 MB].

Future-Proofing Justice: Building a Research Agenda to Address the Effects of Technological Change on the Protection of Constitutional Rights

Future-Proofing Justice: Building a Research Agenda to Address the Effects of Technological Change on the Protection of Constitutional Rights. RAND Corporation. Brian A. Jackson et al. January 10, 2017.

New technologies have changed the types of data that are routinely collected about citizens on a daily basis. For example, smart devices collect location and communication data, and fitness trackers and medical devices capture physiological and other data. As technology changes, new portable and connected devices have the potential to gather even more information. Such data have great potential utility in criminal justice proceedings, and they are already being used in case preparations, plea negotiations, and trials. But the broad expansion of technological capability also has the potential to stress approaches for ensuring that individuals’ constitutional rights are protected through legal processes. In an effort to consider those implications, we convened a panel of criminal justice practitioners, legal scholars, and individuals from the civil liberties community to identify research and other needs to prepare the U.S. legal system both for technologies we are seeing today and for technologies we are likely to see in the future. Through structured brainstorming, the panel explored a wide range of potential issues regarding these technologies, from evidentiary and procedural concerns to questions about the technologies’ accuracy and efficient use. Via a Delphi-based prioritization of the results, the panel crafted a research agenda — including best practice and training development, evaluation, and fundamental research efforts — to provide the criminal justice community with the knowledge and capabilities needed to address these important and complex technological questions going forward. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 44 pages, 795.50 KB].

Smart Peacekeeping: Toward Tech-Enabled UN Operations

Smart Peacekeeping: Toward Tech-Enabled UN Operations. International Peace Institute. A. Walter Dorn. July 11, 2016.

As the world’s technological revolution proceeds, the United Nations can benefit immensely from a plethora of technologies to assist its peace operations. The U.N. has adopted a strategy for technology and peacekeeping and is showing the will and the means to implement it. New concepts, such as “technology-contributing countries” and “participatory peacekeeping” through new information technology, can improve peace operations. New technologies can also help U.N. field workers “live, move, and work” more effectively and safely, creating the possibility of the “digital peacekeeper.” The report provides an overview of technological capabilities and how they are being used, explores progress to date and key challenges, and offers a set of practical recommendations. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 36 pages, 1.38 MB].

Developments In International Mobile Roaming

Developments In International Mobile Roaming. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Frederic Bourassa et al. April 28, 2016.

The Council adopted on 16 February 2012 the Recommendation of the Council on International Mobile Roaming which provides a set of policy principles to ensure effective competition, consumer awareness and protection, and a fair price level in international mobile roaming services. The report provides an overview of progress made in the implementation of the Recommendation to determine whether any further action is necessary in this area. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 44 pages, 522.74 KB].

Public Predictions for the Future of Workforce Automation

Public Predictions for the Future of Workforce Automation. Pew Research Center. Aaron Smith. March 10, 2016.

From self-driving vehicles and semi-autonomous robots to intelligent algorithms and predictive analytic tools, machines are increasingly capable of performing a wide range of jobs that have long been human domains. A 2013 study by researchers at Oxford University posited that as many as 47% of all jobs in the United States are at risk of “computerization.” And many respondents in a recent Pew Research Center canvassing of technology experts predicted that advances in robotics and computing applications will result in a net displacement of jobs over the coming decades – with potentially profound implications for both workers and society as a whole. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 12 pages, 602.7 KB].

Governing Cyberspace: A Road Map for Transatlantic Leadership

Governing Cyberspace: A Road Map for Transatlantic Leadership. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Sinan Ulgen. January 2016.

Cybertechnologies are rapidly changing the international landscape, but leaders in government, business, and elsewhere are just beginning to understand the ramifications, both good and bad, of an interconnected digital world. Weak international governance of cyberspace stands in stark contrast to the accelerating pace of challenges. To shape the regimes that govern cyberspace to the advantage of generations to come, the United States and the European Union should forge a joint policy vision. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 96 pages, 2.75 MB].

Keeping the Edge: U.S. Innovation

Keeping the Edge: U.S. Innovation. Council on Foreign Relations. October 2015.

The United States leads the world in combining innovation quality and quantity, but the challenges are growing, particularly when it comes to scientific research. Addressing gaps in U.S. innovation policy could help ensure that the United States remains the leading innovation center for decades to come. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[HTML format with a link to the PDF file, 28 pages, 6.9 MB].