Chronic Absenteeism: An Old Problem in Search of New Answers

Chronic Absenteeism: An Old Problem in Search of New Answers. Brookings Institution. Brian A. Jacob and Kelly Lovett. July 27, 2017

A recent report by the U.S. Department of Education identifies “chronic absenteeism” as a hidden educational crisis. In 2013-14, roughly 14 percent of students nationwide were chronically absent—defined as missing 10 percent or more of school days, excused or unexcused, which in most states would correspond to about 18 days of school missed each year. In some cities, that rate is considerably higher, with Detroit topping the list at 57.3 percent of students chronically absent. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

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How Americans Perceive the Workplace: Results from the American Working Conditions Survey

How Americans Perceive the Workplace: Results from the American Working Conditions Survey. RAND Corporation. Nicole Maestas et al. August 14, 2017.

For many Americans, the workplace is hectic, hazardous, and physically demanding — yet many retirees would still consider rejoining the workforce if the right opportunity came along.
Those are just a few of the results from the American Working Conditions Survey — one of the most in-depth surveys ever undertaken about the American workplace. This brief presents highlights from the survey, conducted by investigators from Harvard University, the RAND Corporation, and the University of California, Los Angeles.
(Half of American workers say that they work in their free time to meet workplace demands, 63 percent feel that they are doing useful work, and 46 percent of retirees age 50 and older say that they would return to work if conditions were right.) [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 8 pages, 1.52 MB].

Globally, People Point to ISIS and Climate Change as Leading Security Threats: Concern About Cyberattacks, World Economy Also Widespread

Globally, People Point to ISIS and Climate Change as Leading Security Threats: Concern About Cyberattacks, World Economy Also Widespread. Pew Research Center. Jacob Poushter and Dorothy Manevich. August 1, 2017.

People around the globe identify ISIS and climate change as the leading threats to national security, according to a new Pew Research Center survey. The survey asked about eight possible threats. While the level and focus of concern varies by region and country, ISIS and climate change clearly emerge as the most frequently cited security risks across the 38 countries polled. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 32 pages, 1.29 MB].

Sustaining Progress in International Negotiations on Cybersecurity

Sustaining Progress in International Negotiations on Cybersecurity. Center for Strategic & International Studies. James Andrew Lewis. July 25, 2017

Concern over the risk of cyber attack led Russia in 1998 to propose at the United Nations a treaty to limit the use of cyber attack and cyber weapons. The Russian proposal drew on the experience of arms control and disarmament, but it found little support and was opposed by the United States. During the same period, there were also various proposals from the academic community for some sort of formal international cybersecurity convention, but many of these proposals were impractical and they too garnered little support. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 7 pages, 268.20 KB].

Transport Pricing and Accessibility

Transport Pricing and Accessibility. Brookings Institution. Kenneth Gwilliam. July 2017

A common criticism of urban transport strategies is that they are unduly concerned with mobility or the ability to move rather than accessibility in which a desired journey purpose can be satisfied. It is often further argued that a consequence of this focus on mobility, particularly motorized mobility, is that transport is not affordable to the poor, and that this exclusion justified the use of subsidies to remedy the situation. A key element of “Moving to Access” is thus concerned with increasing the affordability of transport for the poor. The objective of this paper is to explore the relationships between mobility, accessibility, affordability and transport prices and subsidies in more detail with a view to better reconciling the economic efficiency of the urban transport systems with the welfare of the poor. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 46 pages, 595.9 KB].

The Patterns in Global Terrorism: 1970-2016

The Patterns in Global Terrorism: 1970-2016. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Anthony Cordesman. August 14, 2017

The Burke Chair at CSIS has prepared a graphic overview of the trends of terrorism development as of the end of 2016. It traces the patterns since 1970, and focuses on the period from 2011-2016 — the years since the sudden rise of massive political instability and extremism in the MENA region. It covers global, regional, and key national trends and compares different estimates and sources for 2015 and 2016.

The report draws primarily on reporting in the START database, but uses other reporting from sources like EU/Europol, IHS Jane’s, and the IEP to illustrate different estimates, different perspectives, and the uncertainties in the data. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 368 pages, 11.20 MB].

U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. James K. Jackson. June 29, 2017

The United States is the largest direct investor abroad and the largest recipient of foreign direct investment in the world. For some Americans, the national gains attributed to investing overseas are offset by such perceived losses as offshoring facilities, displacing U.S. workers, and lowering wages. Some observers believe U.S. firms invest abroad to avoid U.S. labor unions or high U.S. wages, but 74% of the accumulated U.S. foreign direct investment is concentrated in high-income developed countries. In recent years, the share of investment going to developing countries has fallen. Most economists argue that there is no conclusive evidence that direct investment abroad as a whole leads to fewer jobs or lower incomes overall for Americans. Instead, they argue that the majority of jobs lost among U.S. manufacturing firms over the past decade reflect a broad restructuring of U.S. manufacturing industries responding primarily to domestic economic forces.

[PDF format, 18 pages, 855.61 KB].