European Energy Diversification: How Alternative Sources and Routes Can Bolster Energy Security and Decarbonization

European Energy Diversification: How Alternative Sources and Routes Can Bolster Energy Security and Decarbonization.  Atlantic Council. Richard L. Morningstar et al. January 9, 2020.

The European Union’s efforts to achieve a carbon-neutral economy present a unique and timely opportunity to strengthen European energy security. What is the EU currently doing to meet its decarbonization goals, address the role of natural gas in Europe’s low-carbon future, and explain the potential for new gas sources, alternative gas routes, and clean energy technologies to reduce carbon emissions? And how can this be done while simultaneously increasing European energy security and opportunities for transatlantic cooperation?  [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 16 pages].

Vision on Defence-Related Skills for Europe Today and Tomorrow

Vision on Defence-Related Skills for Europe Today and Tomorrow. RAND Corporation.  Katerina Galai et al. October 30, 2019.

This report presents the European defence industrial skills landscape as part of a 12-month project on developing a common skills strategy for the European defence sector. It identifies the skills requirements of the European defence sector, and highlights the skills that will be needed in future, while also identifying the defence market dynamics and technological development trends shaping these requirements. These factors help highlight the drivers of changes in skills needs and scarcity levels, also captured here. The report then identifies defence-related skills gaps and shortages and highlights challenges with different sets of skills, in different defence domains (air, naval, land, space, cyber, complex weapons) and across the stages of the defence equipment life cycle (e.g. design engineering, manufacture, maintenance, disposal). The report also presents the general features of the European defence industrial skills supply, mapping the existing and planned EU, national, regional and industry-led policies, programmes and initiatives aimed at the sustainment and development of defence-related skills. Strengths and gaps in existing education and training initiatives are also identified. The report concludes by drawing out the implications of the industrial skills landscape for the European sectoral skills strategy to be developed in the second phase of the project. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 156 pages].

Secular Divergence: Explaining Nationalism in Europe

Secular Divergence: Explaining Nationalism in Europe. Brookings Institution. Carlo Bastasin. May 2019

The doctrine of nationalism will continue eroding Europe’s integration until its hidden cause is recognized and addressed. In order to do so, Europe’s policymakers must acknowledge a new, powerful, and pervasive factor of social and political change: divergence within countries, sectors, jobs, or local communities.

The popularity of the nationalist rhetoric should not be underestimated. Nationalist parties—like the Italian “Lega,” the French “Rassemblement National,” or the German “Alternative für Deutschland”—present themselves as a response to the damages inflicted by globalization in terms of impoverishment and inequality. Their rhetoric claiming that borders must be closed is simple and attractive. In fact, empirical evidence does not confirm a direct relation between open borders and impoverishment in Europe; there is also no univocal relation between economic inequality or stagnation and the rise of consensus for nationalist or anti-European parties. Finally, inequality seems to have increased more within countries than between them. Therefore, none of the reasons underpinning the claims for closing borders is watertight.

This paper offers a different explanation of the increasing unease in European societies leading to the popularity of nationalism: the development of two persistent social dynamics, the first trend driving individuals to fear their irreversible decline, and the second dynamic leading more prosperous parts of society to protect their increasing economic advantages and well-being. These dynamics lead to what I call “secular divergence,” a trend that does not coincide with the obvious inequalities, and not even only with regional inequalities. It is rather a protracted sense of marginality felt by those who fear the unstoppable decline of their profession, community, or family, and a sense of detachment among those who instead protect their growing well-being in an unstable world. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 16 pages].

Countering Violent Extremism in Australia and Abroad: A Framework for Characterising CVE Programs in Australia, the United States, and Europe

Countering Violent Extremism in Australia and Abroad: A Framework for Characterising CVE Programs in Australia, the United States, and Europe. RAND Corporation.  Andrew Lauland et al.  April 4, 2019.

As countries around the world develop countering violent extremism (CVE) programs to prevent homegrown terrorism, there is a dearth of understanding about what types of CVE programs exist and which CVE approaches are most effective. (CVE is a relatively new, and potentially still evolving, term for a set of programs that share ties to, but are distinct from, traditional counterterrorism efforts and domestically focused law enforcement activities, such as community policing.) Significant differences exist across nations in terms of CVE strategy and approach, how long government-funded efforts have been underway, and how government and other partners and stakeholders work together.

This report documents an effort to help CVE program directors and policymakers in Australia place their efforts in context and identify promising approaches internationally. The authors developed a general framework for characterising CVE programs and then interviewed project staff at and collected information on two promising Australian CVE programs. Using this framework and the results of the interviews and data collection, the project team analysed the Australian programs to identify their primary characteristics, and then examined publicly available information to identify programs in Europe and the United States with goals, approaches, and target populations similar to the Australian programs. This method for mapping programs against goals and activity types could facilitate information exchange across countries. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 112 pages].

Europe in 2019: A Critical and Transitional Year

Europe in 2019: A Critical and Transitional Year. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Rachel Ellehuus, Ricklef Beutin, Quentin Lopinot. February 7, 2019

CSIS Europe Program experts Rachel Ellehuus, Ricklef Beutin, and Quentin Lopinot provide a snapshot on some of the most significant events on the European and transatlantic security and defense calendar for 2019 and the important stakes that are at play. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 6 pages].

Eastern and Western Europeans Differ on Importance of Religion, Views of Minorities, and Key Social Issues

Eastern and Western Europeans Differ on Importance of Religion, Views of Minorities, and Key Social Issues. Pew Research Center. October 29, 2018

People in Central and Eastern Europe are less accepting of Muslims and Jews, same-sex marriage, and legal abortion

The Iron Curtain that once divided Europe may be long gone, but the continent today is split by stark differences in public attitudes toward religion, minorities and social issues such as gay marriage and legal abortion. Compared with Western Europeans, fewer Central and Eastern Europeans would welcome Muslims or Jews into their families or neighborhoods, extend the right of marriage to gay or lesbian couples or broaden the definition of national identity to include people born outside their country.

These differences emerge from a series of surveys conducted by Pew Research Center between 2015 and 2017 among nearly 56,000 adults (ages 18 and older) in 34 Western, Central and Eastern European countries, and they continue to divide the continent more than a decade after the European Union began to expand well beyond its Western European roots to include, among others, the Central European countries of Poland and Hungary, and the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 30 pages].

Shifting Tides: Radical-Right Populism and Immigration Policy in Europe and the United States

Shifting Tides: Radical-Right Populism and Immigration Policy in Europe and the United States. Migration Policy Institute. Martin A. Schain. August 2018.

 Even as populist radical-right parties have experienced mixed electoral success, their ideas have gained traction in Europe and the United States. This report analyzes the economic, political, and social factors behind the rise in support for the radical-right agenda, and the impact of this trend on immigration policymaking and the broader political landscape on both sides of the Atlantic. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

 [PDF format, 38 pages].