Hours Flexibility and the Gender Gap in Pay

Hours Flexibility and the Gender Gap in Pay. Center for Global Development. Claudia Goldin. April 15, 2015.

There is a large hourly wage penalty associated with working fewer hours per week, and although the effect is similar by gender, women are more greatly affected because they are more likely to work fewer than 40 hours per week, according to the author. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 31 pages, 1.72 MB].

How Financially Literate are Women?

How Financially Literate are Women? National Bureau of Economic Research. Tabea Bucher-Koenen et al. Web posted on January 28, 2015.

Women are less likely than men to answer correctly questions that measure knowledge of basic financial concepts, the authors report. Young and old women and those for whom financial knowledge is likely to be important, such as widows and singles, all have lower financial literacy than men, and these gender differences are strikingly similar across countries. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 33 pages, 525 KB].

Battlefields and Boardrooms: Women’s Leadership in the Military and the Private Sector

Battlefields and Boardrooms: Women’s Leadership in the Military and the Private Sector. Center for a New American Security. Nora Bensahel et al. January 2015.

The end of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan marks the close of the first era where women rose through the military ranks into significant leadership roles. As the first female graduates of the service academies from the class of 1980 approach the 35th anniversary of their commissioning, the moment offers an opportunity to eflect upon the individual and institutional characteristics enabling the rise of women into senior leadership roles across the services.

Similarly, significant changes in legislation and social trends throughout the 1970s produced an expanding cohort of female executives within the private sector. While their experiences are clearly different from those of their military counterparts, comparing the experiences of women in these two distinct communities permits an assessment of the challenges and opportunities that women face throughout their careers that lead to or hinder their success – and, ultimately, the success of their institutions, by enabling them to draw on the full range of the nation’s talent. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 44 pages, 3.8 MB].

Record Share of Americans Have Never Married

Record Share of Americans Have Never Married. Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends. Wendy Wang and Kim Parker. September 24, 2014.

After decades of declining marriage rates and changes in family structure, the share of American adults who have never been married is at an historic high. In 2012, one-in-fine adults ages 25 and older (about 42 million people) had never been married, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of census data. In 1960, only about one-in-ten adults (9%) in that age range had never been married. Men are more likely to have never been married (23% vs. 17% in 2012). And this gender gap has widened since 1960, when 10% of men ages 25 and older and 8% of women of the same age had never married. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 46 pages, 773.06 KB].

The G20 and Gender Equality: How the G20 Can Advance Women’s Rights in Employment, Social Protection and Fiscal Policies

The G20 and Gender Equality: How the G20 Can Advance Women’s Rights in Employment, Social Protection and Fiscal Policies. Oxfam International. Shawna Wakefield. July 14, 2014.

Across G20 countries and beyond, women are paid less than men, do most of the unpaid labor, are over-represented in part-time work, and are discriminated against in the household, in markets and in institutions. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/the_g20_and_gender_equality-summary_en.pdf Executive Summary [PDF format, 4 pages, 239.59 KB].

http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/the_g20_and_gender_equality_en.pdf Full Text [PDF format, 36 pages, 505.15 KB].

Lessons from the States: Responsible Prison Reform

Lessons from the States: Responsible Prison Reform. Urban Institute. Nancy G. La Vigne. July 15, 2014.

In the testimony before the House Judiciary Committee’s Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security and Investigations, Urban’s Director of the Justice Policy Center, Nancy La Vigne, highlights the lessons learned from responsible prison reform in the states and discusses the federal prison system, its challenges and opportunities for reform. She also discusses the importance of both front- and back-end changes to yield meaningful and lasting reforms. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 17 pages, 273.02 KB].

Women’s Work: The Economic Mobility of Women Across a Generation

Women’s Work: The Economic Mobility of Women Across a Generation. The Pew Charitable Trusts. April 2014.

The study demonstrates that women’s increased labor force participation and earnings have enabled some families to maintain their places on the economic ladder or, particularly among families at the bottom, to move up. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 19 pages, 3.78 MB].

Educational Attainment and Earnings Inequality among US-Born Men: A Lifetime Perspective

Educational Attainment and Earnings Inequality among US-Born Men: A Lifetime Perspective. Urban Institute. Josh Mitchell. April 8, 2014.

The report tracks the lifetime earnings of men born in the U.S. between 1940 and 1974, focusing on how earnings differences by educational attainment, age, and year of birth have evolved. Both annual and lifetime earnings inequality increased dramatically for men born in the mid-1950s onward. That increase reflects both absolute earnings gains to highly educated workers, especially those with more than a four-year college degree, and absolute earnings losses to less educated workers. Earnings inequality also increases substantially among those with the same level of educational attainment, complicating standard assumptions about the lifetime value of a college degree. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 17 pages, 297.56 KB].

Do Financial Knowledge, Behavior, and Well-Being Differ by Gender?

Do Financial Knowledge, Behavior, and Well-Being Differ by Gender? Urban Institute. Brett Theodos et al. March 31, 2014.

Using the National Financial Capability Survey, the report examines differences among men and women in financial knowledge, behavior, and well-being. It finds that women are less financially knowledgeable than men. Women are less willing than men to take financial risks and have more credit cards than men. However, women are equally likely to pay their credit cards in full every month and are equally likely to save for retirement. More differences by gender arise when men and women are separated by family type. Unmarried women with dependent children are worse-off and likely have other financial stresses. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 8 pages, 421.4 KB].

Global Agenda Council on Women’s Empowerment 2012-2014

Global Agenda Council on Women’s Empowerment 2012-2014. World Economic Forum. February 10, 2014.

Countries that invest in girls and integrate women into the workforce tend to be more competitive. Thus, many governments are considering or already implementing policies to promote opportunities for women. Mounting research and anecdotal evidence show that closing the gender gap is good for companies, too. Those that successfully engage women can reap a rich diversity dividend. With talent shortages projected to become more severe in much of the developed and developing world, it is imperative. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 1 page, 382.0 KB].