State and Local Fiscal Effects of Immigration

State and Local Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Urban Institute. Kim S. Rueben, Sarah Gault. June 5, 2017

In the aftermath of the 2016 presidential election, immigrants and immigration are at the forefront of the national conversation. Although much of the discussion has focused on national security and who should be able to live in the United States, a key aspect of the issue is what immigrants contribute to or cost this country. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NAS) commissioned a panel of experts to examine this issue and released The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration (NAS 2016) summarizing what we know about this multifaceted topic. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 19 pages, 1.63 MB].

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Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants and Immigration in the United States

Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants and Immigration in the United States. Migration Policy Institute. Jie Zong and Jeanne Batalova. March 8, 2017

Threaded throughout the history of the United States, immigration has taken on greater prominence in political and policy conversations amid debate over possible reforms to the immigration system, border and national security, and the U.S. role in resettling refugees at a time of record global displacement. Questions about the current and historical pace of immigration, the role of immigrants in the labor market, illegal immigration, humanitarian admission policies, and enforcement practices are often raised. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

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Human Smuggling: Ruthless Crime or Invaluable Service?

Human Smuggling: Ruthless Crime or Invaluable Service? YaleGlobal . Joseph Chamie. 22 December 2016

Human smuggling is not new or easy to stop. Governments consider the activity a crime, yet migrants fleeing war, poverty, persecution or disasters seek out the services of experienced smugglers. The most desperate stories draw global sympathy. “For many unauthorized migrants, smugglers are freedom facilitators,” concedes Joseph Chamie, demography expert and former director of the United Nations Population Division. Analysts do not agree on the best approach for slowing human smuggling: Some urge tight border security, but others point out that walls and other barriers force migrants to rely on smugglers. Open borders would end smuggling but would disrupt communities and countries. Chamie describes the many challenges confronting governments including varying perceptions among their own citizens and even border guards or police who look the other way. He concludes, “Many consider human smuggling as permissible or even justified when helping those escaping persecution or desperate conditions.” Good governance emphasizes compassion and security.[ Note: contains copyrighted material].

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The Cost of Welfare Use By Immigrant and Native Households

The Cost of Welfare Use By Immigrant and Native Households. Center for Immigration Studies. Jason Richwine. May 2016.

The study of immigration and welfare use, shows that 51 percent of immigrant-headed households (legal and illegal) use at least one federal welfare program, compared to 30 percent of native households. “Welfare” refers to means-tested anti-poverty programs. These include direct cash assistance in the form of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); food aid such as free school lunch, the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) nutrition program, and food stamps; Medicaid; and housing assistance in the form of rent subsidies and public housing. Not included are social insurance programs for which participants must generally pay into the system before drawing benefits, such as Social Security and Medicare. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 18 pages, 1.48 MB].

Whisper It Softly: Muslims Are Part of Europe’s Future

Whisper It Softly: Muslims Are Part of Europe’s Future. YaleGlobal. Shada Islam. March 10, 2016.

Violent conflict in the Middle East is driving hundreds of thousands of refugees toward Europe, a crisis that is straining resources, explains Shada Islam. The continent is divided over welcoming the refugees and settling them in different countries, with some politicians stoking fear and warning about a clash of cultures. “Muslims, also, whatever their origin and sectarian affiliations, must get used to regarding Europe as their home, if they are to have fulfilling and productive lives,” Islam notes, pointing out that before the crisis Europe was already home to more than 40 million Muslims, many productive and active citizens. The economy will benefit from smooth integration. “The conversation must underline that living together means abiding by certain ground rules,” Islam concludes. “Integration is a two-way street, requiring adjustment efforts by migrants and host societies.” Communities can step up to the challenge and even flourish by addressing concerns with facts rather than hysterics and fear. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

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61 Million Immigrants and Their Young Children Now Live in the United States

61 Million Immigrants and Their Young Children Now Live in the United States. Center for Immigration Studies. Steven A. Camarota. March 2016.

A new analysis of government data from December 2015 indicates that more than 61 million immigrants and their American-born children under age 18 now live in the United States; roughly three-fourths (45.3 million) are legal immigrants and their children. While the national debate has focused on illegal immigration, the enormous impact of immigration is largely the result of those brought in legally. With some 45 million legal immigrants and their young children already here, should we continue to admit a million new legal permanent immigrants every year? [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 7 pages, 596.41 KB].

Birthright Citizenship and Children Born in the United States to Alien Parents: An Overview of the Legal Debate

Birthright Citizenship and Children Born in the United States to Alien Parents: An Overview of the Legal Debate. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Alexandra M. Wyatt. October 28, 2015.

The first clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, known as the Citizenship Clause, provides that “[a]ll persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.” This generally has been taken to mean that any person born in the United States automatically gains U.S. citizenship, regardless of the citizenship or immigration status of the person’s parents, with limited exceptions such as children born to recognized foreign diplomats. The current rule is often called “birthright citizenship.”

[PDF format, 25 pages, 723.95 KB].