Deterring Emigration with Foreign Aid: An Overview of Evidence from Low-Income Countries. Center for Global Development. Michael Clemens and Hannah Postel. February 12, 2018
In response to the recent migrant and refugee crisis, rich countries have redoubled policy efforts to deter future immigration from poor countries by addressing the “root causes” of migration. The authors review existing evidence on the extent and effectiveness of such efforts. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 30 pages].
Remittance Flows Worldwide in 2016. Pew Research Center. January 23, 2016.
Worldwide, an estimated $574 billion (USD) was sent by migrants to relatives in their home countries in 2016, a 1% decline from 2015, when the amount was $581 billion, according to economists at the World Bank. This is the second drop in global remittances since the global financial crisis. Despite this recent decline, remittances sent by migrants are still about double what they were a decade ago, before the sharp decline in the global economy during the late 2000s. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
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“Hell on Earth”: Abuses Against Refugees and Migrants Trying to Reach Europe from Libya. Refugees International. May 31, 2017.
As Europe faces its largest movement of refugees and migrants since World War II, the majority of refugees and migrants are reaching its borders by crossing the Mediterranean Sea. While the majority of refugees and migrants arrived in Europe by crossing the sea between Turkey and Greece in 2015 and early 2016, the main route is currently between Libya and Italy. Whether they went to Libya to work or just as a place of transit on their way to safety and protection in Europe, migrants and refugees who have spent weeks, months or years in Libya face abuses that include arbitrary detention, torture, unlawful killings, rape, forced labor, kidnapping, and even slavery. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 20 pages, 7.47 MB].
Towards a Whole-of-Society Approach to Receiving and Settling Newcomers in Europe. Migration Policy Institute. Demetrios G. Papademetriou, Meghan Benton. November 2016.
The fever appears to have broken in Europe, as the seemingly endless flows of migrants and asylum seekers have abated. But this is a fragile, and possibly illusory, calm. As public services and communities grapple with the scale, pace, and evolving nature of migration flows, several countries feel that they are doing far more than their fair share.
Despite the sense that too many crises are unfolding at once, some countries and sectors of society remain optimistic that newcomers will inject vital human capital into aging workforces. But despite the fact that some groups have performed remarkably well, the general story across the continent is one of persistent socioeconomic gaps between natives and migrants, adding to a vicious cycle that makes it harder for newcomers and their offspring to thrive.
This report considers how integration challenges in Europe differ from, and complicate, existing challenges of fragmentation and social unrest in European countries. It assesses where integration has worked—and where it hasn’t—and analyzes the prognosis for the most recent cohort of newcomers. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 43 pages, 2.65 MB].
International Migration: Key Findings from the U.S., Europe and the World. Pew Research Center. Phillip Connor. December 15, 2016
Millions of people have migrated from their homes to other countries in recent years. Some migrants have moved voluntarily, seeking economic opportunities. Others have been forced from their homes by political turmoil, persecution or war and have left their countries to seek asylum elsewhere.
To mark International Migrants Day last Sunday, here are Pew’s key findings about international migration trends. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
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