Catalyzing Policing Reform with Data: Policing Typology for Los Angeles Neighborhoods. Urban Institute. Ashlin Oglesby-Neal, Alena Stern, Kathryn L.S. Pettit. May 12, 2020
Strong community-police relationships are essential to public safety, and these relationships influence how communities engage with the police. The authors created a typology based on multiple aspects of policing that reveals a relationship between resident-initiated and police-initiated activity, and explores how that relationship varies across neighborhoods. They found that resident calls for service and police stops and arrests generally increase together, and neighborhoods with high amounts of activity tend to have a greater proportion of violent crime and serious calls for service. The neighborhoods with high activity also tend to have wider racial disparities in stops and arrests, and more economic hardship. This neighborhood-policing typology can inform conversations about police reform in Los Angeles and also serve as an example of how open data can be a powerful tool for local movements for a more equitable criminal justice system in other cities. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 34 pages].
How States Can Support Shared Prosperity in Cities through Quality Jobs. Urban Institute. Donnie Charleston. March 26, 2020
New technologies, economic shifts, changing demographics and continued racial biases are widening income inequalities and racial disparities in cities across the United States. As a result, economic opportunities are increasingly concentrated among a small share of the population and in a limited number of places. To combat increased economic and geographic inequality within cities, local leaders are launching new efforts to enable women, people of color and other underrepresented groups to contribute to and benefit from economic growth. But local leaders cannot address these issues on their own. In an era of federal withdrawal from investments in communities and the social safety net, state and local leaders must work together to advance shared prosperity. In this series of briefs, we articulate why the issues of affordable housing, job growth and upskilling workers matter to statewide shared prosperity. In addition, we explore how state and local governments can forge more effective partnerships, and we profile states that are leading the way.
In this brief, the authors discuss how state and local governments can more effectively partner to grow quality jobs in cities. They acknowledge that the complexity of the challenges requires more integrated and complimentary workforce development and job growth strategies. In an accompanying brief, they address more directly the human capital development strategies that should work in tandem with job growth and economic development approaches examined in this brief. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 20 pages].
Technology and Equity in Cities. Urban Institute. Solomon Greene et al. November 21, 2019
Racial and economic inequities in the US are growing, and rapid technological change can either promote inclusion or widen this divide. City leaders can use technological innovations to manage infrastructure and improve services, communicate with constituents, and make better decisions. But they must also be aware of the challenges that come with the disruptive force of new technological advancements. This report, which is based on a literature review and interviews with experts, explores trends in four areas of technological change: smart infrastructure, shared mobility, civic technology, and technology-enhanced data analytics. The authors identify how those trends could exacerbate or mitigate inequality in cities, and we provide examples of cities that are leveraging these trends and innovations to advance equity goals. They also synthesize cross-cutting themes and recommend principles to guide local efforts to harness technological innovation and create more equitable cities. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 70 pages].
Improving Chronic Illness Management in Harlem: Leveraging Community Health Coaches to Address the Challenge of Medication Management. Urban Institute. Elaine Waxman et al. October 24, 2019
Since 2012, City Health Works in Harlem, New York, has hired clinically supervised, neighborhood-based health coaches to support low-income patients manage chronic illnesses like diabetes and hypertension. Medication management is a major focus of this work. Here, the authors present the major reasons for medication issues, including those that required “escalations” to clinical supervisors. They also discuss the unique ways that community-based coaching can help address medication management challenges that emerge in patients’ daily lives (e.g., multiple medications or food insecurity). Finally, they recommend several action items for medical training and practice, aimed at improving the delivery of patient-centered care. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 34 pages].
Investing in Equitable Urban Park Systems: Emerging Funding Strategies and Tools. Urban Institute. Matthew Eldridge, Kimberly Burrowes, Patrick Spauster. July 16, 2019
Urban parks and green space provide significant tangible and
intangible benefits for cities and their residents. However, for residents and
communities to take full advantage of these benefits, parks must be accessible
and high quality. Historically, low-income neighborhoods and communities of
color have had faced barriers in accessing quality parks. To bridge these gaps
and achieve “park equity” (all residents having reasonably equal access to
quality parks), park leaders and their partners are increasingly focused on
directing park investments to communities in greatest need. Drawing from
interviews with park and recreation leaders and a scan of innovative practices
and approaches from across the country, this report highlights funding
strategies and models communities are implementing to place equity and
communities at the center of park investments and funding decisions. In
addition to elevating interesting, replicable examples, this report offers 11
takeaways for park leaders and their government and community partners. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 74 pages].
Catalyzing Neighborhood Revitalization through Strengthening Civic Infrastructure: Principles for Guiding Place-Based Initiatives. Urban Institute. Aaron Shroyer, Joseph Schilling, Erika C. Poethig. April 16, 2019
Place-based revitalization initiatives seek to make every
neighborhood safe and healthy and to connect them to high-quality services.
These initiatives share a few common characteristics. They concentrate
resources in a specific geography; combine physical revitalization with the
provision of services (e.g., health, education, and job training programs);
leverage existing institutions, networks, and capital; and engage local leaders
and residents. However, they have a mixed track record on whether and how much
current residents benefit from such redevelopment. To address these and other
limitations, more place-based initiatives are starting to marry physical
revitalization with intentional efforts to build civic infrastructure. Civic
infrastructure incorporates a broad view of community assets and therefore
seeks to improve physical and civic assets as well as the processes, practices,
and interactions those assets enable. By strengthening civic infrastructure,
revitalizing physical assets can help create equitable outcomes for residents
and increase community benefits. [Note: contains copyrighted
[PDF format, 42 pages].
Public Housing Work Requirements: Case Study on the Chicago Housing Authority. Urban Institute. Diane K. Levy et al. April 16, 2019
This report presents a case study of the Chicago Housing
Authority’s (CHA’s) work requirement policy, one of a small number of work
requirements implemented by housing authorities. The report describes the CHA
work requirement, the policy’s implementation and how it has changed, and
perceptions of implementation and outcomes from key CHA and service provider
staff and residents. The CHA work requirement has been in place for nearly 10
years, allowing us to analyze implementation over time and outcomes. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 37 pages].
Innovative Financing Approaches for Affordable Rental Housing in the Chicago Region. Urban Institute. Kathryn Reynolds, Leiha Edmonds, Erika C. Poethig. February 28, 2019
Solving America’s affordable housing crisis will mean increasing production of housing, protecting residents from eviction and foreclosure, and preventing the loss of current affordable housing stock. For households unable to obtain housing benefits, unsubsidized “naturally occurring” rental housing provides the bulk of affordable housing in many markets. In the fall of 2018 Urban Institute conducted a series of interviews with staff from Community Investment Corporation (CIC), a community development financial institution (CDFI) in Chicago, the City of Chicago’s Department of Planning and Development and non-profit firm, Elevate Energy. Based on these interviews, we present several strategies to preserve unsubsidized housing stock that are present as aspects in the CIC programs studied. These are proactive program development, responsiveness to local conditions, pursuit and leveraging of partnerships, and strategic use of federal, state, and local policy levers. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 38 pages].
Partners or Pirates? Collaboration and Competition in Local Economic Development. Urban Institute. Megan Randall et al. December 20, 2018
In this report, the authors explore how and why local governments have turned to cooperation to boost economic development. They synthesize highlights from the literature, explore program features from two regional case studies, and share findings from interviews with local practitioners. Although research on the effectiveness of current practices is limited, they identify themes that can inform cooperative economic development. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 67 pages].
Building beyond Policing: A Case Study of Eden Night Live in Alameda County, California. Urban Institute. Cameron Okeke. September 25, 2018
Key takeaway: How community parties have helped California sheriffs rethink public safety
This report describes how the Alameda County Sheriff’s Office used Eden Night Live, a community festival and pop-up marketplace, to creatively reimagine and rebuild community-police relations in Ashland/Cherryland. Through interviews with officers, community members, and staff, this case study examines how artistic performance, community participation, and community-based economic development can build local commerce, foster community cohesion, and change perceptions of public safety. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
[PDF format, 42 pages].