Leading by Example: Public Sector Apprenticeships in Kentucky

Leading by Example: Public Sector Apprenticeships in Kentucky. Urban Institute. Robert I. Lerman, John Marotta, Myca San Miguel. March 8, 2019

While the US government sector employs about 15 percent of nonfarm workers, federal, state, and local governments have not made substantial use of apprenticeships to enhance the skills of their workforce, increase productivity, and widen access to government positions. This report examines steps undertaken by Kentucky to build talent for state government through apprenticeship. The early outcomes are promising: departments can adopt and register apprenticeships quickly, employers are pleased with the productive contributions of apprentices, and apprentices recognize they are gaining valuable skills. The success of departments adopting apprenticeships bodes well for the expansion to other areas. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 58 pages].

The State and Local Role in Election Administration: Duties and Structures

The State and Local Role in Election Administration: Duties and Structures. Congressional Research Service. Karen L. Shanton. March 4, 2019

The administration of elections in the United States is highly decentralized. Elections are primarily administered by thousands of state and local systems rather than a single, unified national system.

States and localities share responsibility for most election administration duties. Exactly how responsibilities are assigned at the state and local levels varies both between and within states, but there are some general patterns in the distribution of duties. States typically have primary responsibility for making decisions about the rules of elections (policymaking). Localities typically have primary responsibility for conducting elections in accordance with those rules (implementation). Localities, with varying contributions from states, typically also have primary responsibility for paying for the activities and resources required to conduct elections (funding).

[PDF format, 22 pages].

Federal Role in Voter Registration: The National Voter Registration Act of 1993 and Subsequent Developments

Federal Role in Voter Registration: The National Voter Registration Act of 1993 and Subsequent Developments. Congressional Research Service. Sarah J. Eckman. January 23, 2019

Historically, most aspects of election administration have been left to state and local governments, resulting in a variety of practices across jurisdictions with respect to voter registration. States can vary on a number of elements of the voter registration process, including whether or not to require voter registration; where or when voter registration occurs; and how voters may be removed from registration lists. The right of citizens to vote, however, is presented in the U.S. Constitution in the 15th, 19th, and 26th Amendments. Beginning with the Voting Rights Act (VRA) in 1965, Congress has sometimes passed legislation requiring certain uniform practices for federal elections, intended to prevent any state policies that may result in the disenfranchisement of eligible voters. The National Voter Registration Act (NVRA) was enacted in 1993 and set forth a number of voter registration requirements for states to follow regarding voter registration processes for federal elections.

[PDF format, 35 pages].

Why Delaying School Start Dates is a Bad Deal for Students

Why Delaying School Start Dates is a Bad Deal for Students. Brookings Institution. Martin R. West. September 8, 2016.

Maryland governor Larry Hogan announced on August 31 a new executive order directing all public schools in the state to delay the start of classes until after Labor Day and end the school year by June 15. “School after Labor Day is now the law of the land in Maryland,” Hogan proudly declared. The governor’s order will effectively convert the statutory minimum of 180 school days into a maximum. The author argues that this is likely to have adverse consequences for students, especially those without access to high-quality educational resources outside of school. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[HTML format, various paging].

Wildfires in the United States: A Primer

Wildfires in the United States: A Primer. Urban Institute. Vera Brusentsev and Wayne Vroman. January 28, 2016.

The report examines recent wildfires in the United States, summarizing their frequency, trends, and costs. It documents the increase in large wildfires and shows their concentration in western states. Cost and budget issues linked to wildfires are also examined. The report recommends ways to reduce the frequency and costs of wildfires along with measures to enhance the resilience of local communities to wildfires. Also noted is a misalignment of incentives in current wildfire policy. Local governments make most of the decisions that influence the cost of wildfires, but the federal government incurs most of the costs for preventing and suppressing wildfires. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 22 pages, 465.47 KB].