The United States and Turkey: Friends, Enemies, or Only Interests?

The United States and Turkey: Friends, Enemies, or Only Interests? Brookings Institution. Aslı Aydıntaşbaş and Kemal Kirişci. April 2017

In “The United States and Turkey: Friends, Enemies, or Only Interests,” Aslı Aydıntaşbaş and Kemal Kirişci discuss the myriad of factors that have strained Washington’s relations with this long-standing NATO ally and offer various strategies to reboot ties in a period of uncertainty and chaos across the Middle East. Bilateral problems in this long alliance—such as Washington’s support for Syrian Kurds in Syria, the thorny issue of extraditing Fethullah Gülen, seen as the mastermind of the coup attempt in July 2016, or the long-term implications of Turkey’s blossoming relations with Moscow—are discussed within the context of the larger regional equation, underlining the need for new parameters and a realistic new agenda between Ankara and Washington. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 30 pages, 2.75 MB].

NATO and Russia in the Black Sea: A New Confrontation?

NATO and Russia in the Black Sea: A New Confrontation? Center for Strategic & International Studies. Boris Toucas. March 6, 2017

With the recent completion of the NATO Sea Shield exercise and NATO defense ministers’ approval of an enhanced force presence in the Black Sea, as Russian aircraft fly close to U.S. vessels operating there, this commentary focuses on the strategic implications of NATO’s military presence in the Black Sea. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

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“Except God, We Have No One”: Lack of Durable Solutions for Non-Syrian Refugees in Turkey

Except God, We Have No One”: Lack of Durable Solutions for Non-Syrian Refugees in Turkey. Refugees International. Izza Leghtas and Daniel Sullivan. February 7, 2017

Turkey is the world’s largest host of refugees and asylum-seekers, with the majority – 2.8 million – having fled the conflict in neighboring Syria. Another 290,000 come from other countries, including Afghanistan, Iraq, and Iran.

The Turkish government has taken a number of positive steps to improve the lives of Syrians in Turkey, particularly in education and employment, even holding out the possibility for citizenship. Humanitarian actors are primarily focusing their efforts on the needs of the Syrians, but the protection measures available to displaced persons of other nationalities are far fewer and their living conditions are underreported. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 20 pages, 4.56 MB].

The Geostrategic Importance of the Black Sea Region: A Brief History

The Geostrategic Importance of the Black Sea Region: A Brief History. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Boris Toucas. February 2, 2017

Russia’s illegal annexation of Crimea in March 2014 refocused global attention on the strategic significance of a region that rests on the fault lines of two former empires—the Russian and Ottoman Empires—with involvement by European powers, such as Great Britain, France, and Germany. This analysis provides an overview of the region with a view that the past is prologue to the region’s future as restive powers reanimate empirical political and military strategies in a modern context. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

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Voices from Turkey: Emerging Threats and New Trends in Turkish Foreign Policy

Voices from Turkey: Emerging Threats and New Trends in Turkish Foreign Policy. Center for American Progress. Galip Dalay. June 29, 2016

Turkey’s foreign policy during most of the republican era was informed by the security imperatives of the Cold War and the crises that ensued from the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. These influences were coupled with the country’s republican elites crafting Turkey’s identity along the lines of strict secularism, militant nationalism, and a western orientation. As a status quo power, Turkey looked at its neighborhood through the lens of security, becoming highly sensitive to threats of all varieties and seeing itself in a hostile environment—if not surrounded by outright enemies. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 9 pages, 155.34 KB].

The East Mediterranean Triangle at Crossroads

The East Mediterranean Triangle at Crossroads. Strategic Studies Institute. Jean-Loup Samaan. March 31, 2016.

The evolving dynamics in the East Mediterranean Triangle, composed of Israel, Turkey and Greece, reveal key security and economic trends that have direct implications for the United States and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

[HTML format with a link to the full text PDF file].

Education of Syrian Refugee Children

Education of Syrian Refugee Children. RAND Corporation. Shelly Culbertson and Louay Constant. November 23, 2015.

The report reviews education of Syrian refugee children in the three neighboring countries with the largest population of refugees — Turkey, Lebanon, and Jordan — and analyzes four areas: access, management, society, and quality. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 114 pages, 0.8 MB].