Family Inequality: Diverging Patterns in Marriage, Cohabitation, and Childbearing

Family Inequality: Diverging Patterns in Marriage, Cohabitation, and Childbearing. National Bureu of Economic Research. Shelly Lundberg et al. March 31, 2016.

The last 60 years have seen the emergence of a dramatic socioeconomic gradient in marriage, divorce, cohabitation, and childbearing. The divide is between college graduates and others: those without four-year degrees have family patterns and trajectories very similar to those of high school graduates. The report documents these trends and show that, compared with college graduates, less-educated women are more likely to enter into cohabiting partnerships early and bear children while cohabiting, are less likely to transition quickly into marriage, and have much higher divorce rates. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 29 pages, 492.78 KB].

Supreme Court Appointment Process: President’s Selection of a Nominee

Supreme Court Appointment Process: President’s Selection of a Nominee. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Barry J. McMillion. April 1, 2016.

The appointment of a Supreme Court Justice is an event of major significance in American politics. Each appointment is of consequence because of the enormous judicial power the Supreme Court exercises as the highest appellate court in the federal judiciary. The procedure for appointing a Justice is provided for by the Constitution in only a few words. The “Appointments Clause” (Article II, Section 2, clause 2) states that the President “shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint … Judges of the supreme Court.” The process of appointing Justices has undergone changes over two centuries, but its most basic feature—the sharing of power between the President and Senate—has remained unchanged: To receive appointment to the Court, a candidate must first be nominated by the President and then confirmed by the Senate.

[PDF format, 26 pages, 836.0 KB].

Transformational Climate Finance: An Exploration of Low-Carbon Energy

Transformational Climate Finance: An Exploration of Low-Carbon Energy. World Resources Institute. Michael Westphal and Joe Thwaites. March 2016.

The working paper examines how climate finance can be transformational by gleaning insights from nine low-carbon energy case studies, selected to cover a variety of geographies, energy sources, and degrees of transformation. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 50 pages, 1.17 MB].

Global Health Programs and Partnerships: Evidence of Mutual Benefit and Equity

Global Health Programs and Partnerships: Evidence of Mutual Benefit and Equity. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Stephen Morrison et al. April 1, 2016.

Academic global health programs are proliferating, and global health partnerships between North American academic institutions and institutions in low- and middle-income countries are steadily increasing. The study employs surveys and key informant interviews to examine global health partnerships, and it presents a framework for success to guide the development of sustainable global health programs and partnerships with measurable, defined impact. Eighty-two North American academic institutions and 46 international partnering institutions participated in the survey. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 106 pages, 3.79 MB].

Forfeiting the American Dream: How Civil Asset Forfeiture Exacerbates Hardship for Low-income Communities and Communities of Color

Forfeiting the American Dream: How Civil Asset Forfeiture Exacerbates Hardship for Low-income Communities and Communities of Color. Center for American Progress. Rebecca Vallas et al. April 1, 2016.

The report provides an overview of the rise of civil asset forfeiture abuse by law enforcement, highlights the impact of these abusive practices on low-income individuals and communities of color, and offers steps that state policymakers can take to prevent civil asset forfeiture abuses from pushing already struggling families and communities into or deeper into poverty. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 26 pages, 721.1 KB].

Happy Birthday, You’re Fired! The Effects of Age-Dependent Minimum Wages on Youth Employment Flows in the Netherlands

Happy Birthday, You’re Fired! The Effects of Age-Dependent Minimum Wages on Youth Employment Flows in the Netherlands. Cato Institute. Jan Kabatek. March 30, 2016.

Many countries use age-dependent minimum wage systems to facilitate the entry of young workers into the labor force. The age dependency turns the minimum wage rate into a stepwise increasing function of workers’ calendar age, rendering young workers comparatively cheaper than older workers. Being subject to the reduced minimum wage, younger job seekers become more desirable for firms and therefore are more likely to find a job that fits their skills and experience. Indeed, several studies find positive effects of an age-dependent minimum wage on youth employment. However, what they fail to address is that, apart from its effects on employment stocks, this policy design changes the youth labor market flows, introducing new dynamics into the decisions of both employers and employees. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 2 pages, 69.63 KB].

Campaign Exposes Fissures Over Issues, Values and How Life Has Changed in the U.S.

Campaign Exposes Fissures Over Issues, Values and How Life Has Changed in the U.S. Pew Research Center. March 31, 2016.

The 2016 presidential campaign has exposed deep disagreements between – and within – the two parties on a range of major policy issues. But these divisions go well beyond the issues and extend to fundamentally different visions of the way that life in the United States has changed. Overall, 46% of registered voters say that life in America today is worse than it was 50 years ago “for people like them,” while 34% say life is better and 14% think it is about the same. Republican and Republican-leaning voters are more than twice as likely as Democratic voters to say life in this country has gotten worse over the past half-century for people like them (66% to 28%). [Note: contains copyrighted material].

[PDF format, 89 pages, 753.4 KB].